Information

A timeline of events in 1984-1985 - History


1984 Indira Ghandi Murdered While walking home from her office, Indira Gandhi was killed by two of her bodyguards. Her assassins were Sikh extremists retaliating for the raid she ordered on their shrine in Amritsar, which had resulted in the deaths of over 1,000 Sikh separatists. Hindu rioting after the assassination killed more than 2,000 Sikhs.
1984 UK and China Agree on Hong Kong Great Britain and the People's Republic of China agreed on terms for the return of Hong Kong to China when the 99-year lease to portions of Hong Kong was to expire in 1997. Under the agreement, Hong Kong was to maintain its capitalist system after its return to Chinese control.
1984 Poison Gas Escapes Union Carbide plant Gas escaped from the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India. The gas, which was methyl isocyanate (used in the manufacture of insecticides) killed 2,000 people; and 200, 000 suffered long term harm.
1984 300 Die, When the Indian Army Attacks Sikh Temple The Indian Army attacked the Golden Temple, one of the holiest Sikh shrines. The Army claimed it was an arms depot. Three hundred died in the attack.
1984 Moderates Win Election in El Savador Free elections held in El Salvador brought Jose Napoleon Duarte to power as President. Duarte was considered a moderate. He won 54% of the vote. His chief rival was Roberto d' Aubuisoon, leader of the right-wing party. Duarte became the first civilian leader in El Salvador in 49 years.
1984 AIDS Breaks Out French scientists reported isolating the virus that caused Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In 1984, 7,000 cases of AIDS had been reported in the United States; 3,300 of its victims were dead by the end of the year.
1985 Gorbechav Becomes Soviet Leader On March 11, 1985, after the death of Secretary General Cherenenko, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was named the new leader of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev represented a younger generation of Soviet leaders, and began a series of reforms aimed at invigorating the communist system in the Soviet Union, while at the same time improving relations with the West. The changes he began soon developed a momentum of their own.
1985 Nimeiri Ousted in the Sudan General Nimeiri was ousted in the Sudan after serving as head of government since 1969. Nimeiri fought to suppress a rebellion in the non-Muslim south. He imposed Islamic law, but lost almost all support. In April, a military revolt, led by Defense Minister Abdel Raham Siwar el-Dahab, removed Nimeiri from power.
1985 Rainbow Warrior Sunk The Rainbow Warrior, owned by Greenpeace, was sunk in the Auckland harbor. The ship was preparing to protest French nuclear tests. The French government admitted blowing up the ship. The French defense minister was forced to resign.
1985 Achille Lauro Seized Palestinian terrorists seized the cruise ship the Achille Lauro. The terrorists killed an American tourist, Leon Klinghoffer, and threw his body off the ship. The terrorists agreed to surrender to Egyptian authorities that promised them safe passage. When they were flown out of Egypt, the US intercepted the plane and forced it to land in Italy, where they were put on trial.
1985 TWA Flight 847 Hijacked A TWA Boeing 727 was hijacked by two Shi'ite terrorist; 153 people were held hostage. Women, children and the elderly were released. One American hostage was killed, and his body thrown out of the plane. The remaining passengers were held in various parts of Beirut. After Israel released 31 of its Shi'ite prisoners, the hostages were released
1985 US Becomes Debtor Nation For the first time since 1914, the United States owed more money to foreigners than it was owed.
1985 Reagan Tax Reform President Reagan unveiled a new tax program that would simplify tax laws and lower America's tax rates. The new laws would lower the maximum personal income tax rate of 35.5 and would decrease the number of rates from 11 to 3. It also lowered corporate rates.
1985 Columbian Terrorists execute 100- Including 11 judges Colombian terrorists of the M-19 group stormed the Palace of Justice in Bogotá. There they held two dozen Justices, as well as over a hundred other hostages. When the army stormed the building, the M-19 killed all the hostages.

A Year in History: Timeline of 1984 Events

The year of Band Aid, the UK Miners strike and numerous scientific discoveries, 1984 events will forever be remembered. The winter and summer Olympics saw record numbers of nations gather together to compete, despite political tensions around the globe. Further events which hit the headlines found in our 1984 newspapers .

The USA Olympic Team wave at spectators during the 1984 opening ceremony
Image: Wikimedia Commons


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  • June 5: First official reporting of what will be known as AIDS.
    • A report described Pneumocystis pneumonia in previously healthy, gay men in LA. This is the first official reporting of what will be known as the AIDS epidemic. Link to the first official report of what will be known as the AIDS epidemic
    • About 30 Epidemic Intelligence Service officers and staff participated.
    • Link to the report of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia in 26 homosexual men in New York and California
    • September 24: CDC uses the term "AIDS" for the first time and releases the first case definition for AIDS.
    • CDC reports a case of AIDS in an infant who received a blood transfusion. Link to CDC reports a case of AIDS in an infant who received a blood transfusion
    • MMWR reports 22 cases of unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants. Link to Reports of AIDS hinting of perinatal transmission

    • CDC establishes the National AIDS Hotline to respond to public inquiries about the disease.
    • January 7: Report of AIDS in female sexual partners of males with AIDS.
      • Link to report of AIDS in female sexual partners of males with AIDS
      • MMWR suggests that AIDS may be caused by an infectious agent that is transmitted sexually or through exposure to blood or blood products and issues recommendations for preventing transmission. Link to report of most cases of AIDS have been among homosexual men, injection drug users, Haitians, and people with hemophilia
      • Link to report of CDC first recommendations to prevent occupational exposure for healthcare workers
      • Link to report of CDC identification of all major routes of transmission
      • July 13: Needle-sharing identified as transmission method.
        • CDC states that avoiding injection drug use and reducing needle-sharing "should also be effective in preventing transmissions of the virus." Link to report from CDC to avoid injection drug use and reduce needle sharing should also be effective in preventing transmission of the virus
        • CDC, along with colleagues from Zaire and Belgium, establishes Project SIDA, which would become the largest HIV/AIDS research project in Africa in the 1980s.

        • January 11: Revised AIDS case definition notes AIDS is caused by HIV. Blood screening guidelines issued.
          • Link to report of CDC revised AIDS case definition notes causes by HIV Blood screening guidelines

          • October 22: Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop, issues the Surgeon General's Report on AIDS. The report makes it clear that HIV cannot be spread casually and calls for a nationwide education campaign (including early sex education in schools), increased use of condoms, and voluntary HIV testing.
            • Link to report of Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop on AIDS/
            • August: CDC holds the first national conference on HIV and Communities of Color in New York.
            • August 14: CDC issues Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Public Health Service Guidelines for Counseling and Antibody Testing to Prevent HIV Infections and AIDS.
            • CDC begins working in Côte d'Ivoire, establishing a field station in Abidjan and launching the Retrovirus Côte d'Ivoire (CDC Retro-CI).

            • The brochure "Understanding AIDS" is sent to every household in the US—107 million copies in all.
              • News article: Link to the news article of mailing to every household in US about Understanding AIDS
              • Brochure: Link to brochure called Understanding AIDS
              • June 16: CDC issues first guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
                • Link to CDC report on preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

                • July 27: CDC reports possible transmission of HIV to a patient through a dental procedure performed by a dentist living with HIV.

                • July 12: CDC issues recommendations for healthcare workers with HIV.
                  • Link to CDC report on recommendations for healthcare workers with HIV
                  • Congress enacts a law requiring states to adopt the CDC restrictions or to develop and adopt their own.
                  • AIDS becomes the number one cause of death for US men aged 25-44.
                    • Link to CDC report on AIDS becomes the number one cause of death for US men aged 25-44
                    • Labor Responds to AIDS begins in 1995.
                    • CDC expands case definition for AIDS, declaring those with CD4 count below 200 to have AIDS. Link to CDC report on expanding case definition for AIDS, declaring those with CD4 count below 200 to have AIDS

                    • Community-planning process launched.
                      • CDC institutes the community-planning process to better target local prevention efforts.
                      • May 20: CDC publishes guidelines for preventing HIV transmission through tissue and organ transplants.
                        • Link to CDC report on guidelines for prevention of HIV transmission through tissue and organ transplants
                        • July 14: CDC issues first guidelines to help healthcare providers prevent OIs in people living with HIV.

                        • UNAIDS established.
                        • CDC reports the first substantial decline in AIDS deaths in the US.
                          • AIDS-related deaths in the US decline by 47% from the previous year, due largely to the use of HAART. Link to CDC report on first substantial decline in AIDS deaths in the US

                          • CDC reports that African Americans account for 49% of US AIDS-related deaths.
                            • The AIDS-related mortality for African Americans is almost 10 times that of whites. Link to CDC report on African Americans accounts for 49% of US AIDS-related deaths
                            • Link to CDC report on the first national treatment guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults and adolescents with HIV
                            • July: Leadership and Investment in Fighting an Epidemic (LIFE) launched to combat AIDS in Africa.
                              • President Bill Clinton launches the LIFE Initiative to expand efforts to combat AIDS in Africa, and CDC provides critical technical support. Link to President Bill Clinton launch of the LIFE Initiative to expand efforts to combat AIDS in Africa

                              • July: Congress enacts Global AIDS and TB Relief Act authorizes $600 million in funding.

                              • CDC announces a new HIV Prevention Strategic Plan to cut annual HIV infections in the US by half within the five years.
                                • Link to CDC announcement on a new HIV Prevention Strategic Plan to cut annual HIV infections in the US by half within the five years
                                • $500 million mother-to-child HIV prevention initiative in Africa and Carribean.
                                  • President George W. Bush announces a $500 million initiative to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improve health care delivery in 14 African and Caribbean countries. Link to President George W. Bush announcement on $500 million initiative to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV

                                  • Over two-thirds of new HIV infections in US are from those who do not know they are infected.
                                    • CDC estimates that 27,000 of the estimated 40,000 new infections that occur each year in the US result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected. Link to CDC report that estimates 27,000 of the 40,000 new infections that occur each year in US result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected
                                      aims to reduce barriers to early diagnosis and increase access to, and utilization of, quality medical care, treatment, and ongoing prevention services for those living with HIV.
                                    • Congress authorizes PEPFAR (the "US Leadership Against HIV/ AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003" or Global AIDS Act), a 5-year, $18 billion approach to fighting HIV/AIDS, making it the largest commitment by any nation for an international health initiative dedicated to a single disease.
                                    • January 30: CDC releases guidance for HIV testing during labor and delivery for women of unknown HIV status.
                                      • Link to CDC report on guidance for HIV testing during labor and delivery for women of unknown HIV status
                                      • PEPFAR's Track 1.0 Antiretroviral Therapy Program is launched in partnership with Ministries of Health in 13 countries, and CDC, along with HHS sister-agency HRSA, plays a leading role.
                                      • January 21: CDC releases recommendations to prevent HIV after non-occupational exposure to the virus.
                                        • These recommendations, called non-occupational post- exposure prophylaxis or nPEP, noted that antiretrovial drugs might be beneficial in preventing HIV infection after exposure through sex or injection drug use begun within 72 hours after exposure. Link to CDC report on recommendation to prevent HIV after non-occupational exposure to the virus
                                        • September 22: CDC releases new HIV testing recommendations.
                                          • CDC releases revised HIV testing recommendations: All adults and adolescents aged 13-64 should be screened at least once, with annual screening for those at high risk. Link to CDC report releases revised HIV testing recommendations for All adults and adolescents aged 13-64

                                          • October: CDC launches Prevention IS Care campaign for healthcare providers who deliver care to people living with HIV.
                                            • The campaign emphasizes the importance of helping patients stay on HIV treatment.
                                            • Link to CDC report over 562,000 people have died of AIDS in the US since 1981
                                            • PEPFAR, with CDC support, announces a public-private partnership with Becton Dickinson to strengthen laboratory capacity in four African countries the partnership was renewed for an additional five years in 2013.
                                            • August 6: CDC estimates there are 56,300 new HIV cases each year in the United States.
                                              • CDC releases new domestic incidence estimates that are higher than previous estimates (56,300 new infections per year vs 40,000). The new estimates do not represent an actual increase in the numbers of HIV infections, but reflect a more accurate way of measuring new infections. Link to CDC report on new domestic incidence estimates of HIV infections
                                              • Congress reauthorizes PEPFAR (the "Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008") and expands the initiative by more than tripling its funding to $48 billion. The global response emphasizes a shift to building sustainable, country-owned programs that integrate HIV/AIDS services into broader health systems.

                                              • Global Health Initiative announced.
                                                • President Barack Obama announces the Global Health Initiative, a 6-year initiative to develop a comprehensive approach to global health with PEPFAR at its core.
                                                • PEPFAR and CDC establish The Shuga Initiative in partnership with the MTV Networks Africa, MTV Staying Alive Foundation, Gates Foundation, and UNICEF to increase HIV-risk perception, increase uptake of HIV-testing and counseling services, and increase knowledge of HIV-prevention strategies among youth in Kenya, Nigeria, and Botswana.
                                                • CDC and the White House launch Act Against AIDS, a multiyear, multifaceted communication campaign designed to reduce HIV incidence in the United States.
                                                • HIV infection removed from disease list that prevents non-US citizens from entering country.
                                                  • Department of Health & Human Services and CDC remove HIV infection from the list of diseases that prevent non-US citizens from entering the country.
                                                  • CDC launched the project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burdens participated.

                                                  • CDC launches the Link to High Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) framework to reduce new HIV infections in the United States.
                                                    • HIP focuses on using combinations of scientifically proven, cost-effective, and scalable interventions targeted to the right populations in the right geographic areas in order to increase the impact of HIV prevention efforts.
                                                    • Link to CDC report on interim guidance to health care providers on the use of PrEP as an HIV prevention strategy among men who have sex with men
                                                    • CDC studies TDF2s and Partner PrEP provide the first evidence that a daily oral dose of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection can also reduce HIV acquisition among uninfected individuals exposed to the virus through heterosexual sex.
                                                    • The annual number of new HIV infections in the United States was relatively stable at approximately 50,000 new infections each year between 2006 and 2009. However, HIV infections increased among young gay and bisexual men, driven by increases among young, black gay and bisexual men – the only subpopulation to experience a sustained increase during the time period. Link to CDC report on new HIV incidence estimates
                                                    • Link to CDC press release on fourth National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, CDC awars $55 million to 34 community-based organizations to expand HIV prevention for young gay and bisexual men of color and transgender youth of color
                                                    • Link to CDC vital signs report of people living with HIV
                                                    • Link to CDC launching Testing Makes Us Stronger, national HIV testing campaign for young African American gay and bisexual men
                                                    • NIH's HPTN 052 study results are released demonstrating that treatment reduces transmission of HIV by nearly 96% and ushers in the concept of "treatment as prevention."
                                                    • CDC transitions PEPFAR programs to Ministries of Health and indigenous organizations in 13 countries.
                                                      • CDC transitions its Track 1.0 Antiretroviral Therapy programs in 13 countries from US-based organizations and grantees to Ministries of Health and indigenous organizations.
                                                      • Link to CDC campaign on Take Charge. Take the Test. for HIV testing and awareness among African American women
                                                      • CDC convenes East African faith leaders for a meeting in Kenya to examine the role of faith-based organizations in the response to HIV/AIDS.
                                                      • Link to CDC report on pilot project to train pharmacists and retail store clinic staff to deliver confidential rapid HIV testing
                                                      • Link to CDC launch of Let's Stop HIV together campaign
                                                      • Link to CDC report showing only a quarter of Americans with HIV their virus under control
                                                      • Link to CDC interim guidance on use of medication to prevent HIV infection among heterosexually active adults
                                                      • Link to CDC vital sign report that young people between ages 13 and 24 represent 26% of new HIV infection each year


                                                      • June: CDC launches Reasons/Razones, a national, bilingual campaign that asks Latino gay and bisexual men to consider their reasons for getting tested for HIV.
                                                        • Link to CDC new campaign called Reasons/Razones for getting tested for HIV
                                                        • The "PEPFAR Stewardship and Oversight Act of 2013" reauthorizes PEPFAR,extends a number of existing authorities, and strengthens the oversight of the program through updated reporting requirements.
                                                        • February: CDC releases report showing about one-third of blacks living with HIV have their virus under control.
                                                          • Among blacks who have been diagnosed with HIV, 75 percent were linked to care, 48 percent stayed in care, 46 percent were prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and 35 percent achieved viral suppression. Link to CDC report showing about one-third of blacks living with HIV have their virus under control
                                                          • Link to CDC report for new clinical guidelines on health care providers considering PrEP for patients with substantial risk for HIV
                                                          • Start Talking. Stop HIV. encouraging gay and bisexual men to talk openly with their sexual partners about HIV risk and prevention strategies. Link to Start Talking Campaign
                                                          • We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time, a bilingual communication campaign encouraging Latinos to talk openly about HIV with their families and friends. Link to We Can Stop HIV campaign
                                                          • HIV Treatment Works, encouraging treatment and care for people living with HIV. Link to HIV Treatment works campaign
                                                          • Declines were observed in several key populations, but increases were found among certain age groups of gay and bisexual men, especially young men. Link to CDC report on annual HIV diagnosis rate declined by 30% from 2002-2011
                                                          • Only half of gay and bisexual men diagnosed with HIV are receiving treatment for their infections. Link to CDC report that finds gaps in care and treatment among gay men diagnosed with HIV
                                                          • Among Latinos who have been diagnosed with HIV, just over half (54 percent) were retained in care. Fewer than half (44 percent) of those diagnosed have been prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and just 37 percent have achieved viral suppression. Link to CDC report that finds gaps in care and treatment among Latinos diagnosed with HIV
                                                          • Link to CDC report that only 30% of Americans with HIV had virus under control in 2011 and approximately two-thirds of those whose virus was not controlled had been diagnosed but were no longer in care



                                                          • February 25: 184 cases of HIV linked to injection drug use in Indiana.
                                                            • Indiana state health officials announce an HIV outbreak linked to injection drug use in the southeastern portion of the state. By the end of the year, Indiana will confirm 184 new cases of HIV linked to the outbreak.
                                                            • http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2130723
                                                            • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6424a2.htm
                                                            • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6439a2.htm
                                                            • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6446a4.htm?s_cid=mm6446a4_w
                                                            • CDC announces that annual HIV diagnoses in the US fell by 19% from 2005-2014. There were steep declines among heterosexuals, people who inject drugs, and African Americans (especially black women), but trends for gay/bisexual men varied by race/ ethnicity. Diagnoses among white gay/bisexual men decreased by 18%, but they continued to rise among Latino gay/bisexual men and were up 24%. Diagnoses among black gay/bisexual men also increased (22%), but the increase has leveled off since 2010. https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/factsheets/hiv-data-trends-fact-sheet-508.pdf
                                                            • February: CDC announced lifetime risk of HIV at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunisitic Infections.
                                                              • CDC estimates that 1 in 2 gay/bisexual black men, 1 in 4 gay/ bisexual Latino men, and 1 in 6 gay/bisexual men will be diagnosed with HIV if current trends continue. The overall lifetime risk of HIV diagnosis in the United States is 1 in 99.
                                                              • Press release: http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-press-release-risk.html
                                                              • CDC releases study showing if PrEP use increases in high-risk populations, almost 20% of the estimated 265,330 new HIV infections expected to occur through 2020 could be prevented. The number could be even higher if NHAS targets are achieved.
                                                              • 1 in 10 HIV diagnoses are among people who inject drugs.
                                                              • The use of syringe services has increased, but access to sterile needles still needs to improve for effective HIV prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/hiv-drug-use/index.html

                                                              • February: CDC announces annual new HIV infections in the U.S. fell 18% between 2008 and 2014. The decline signals HIV prevention and treatment efforts are paying off, but not all communities are seeing the same progress.
                                                              • March: The first study of PrEP use by race and risk group shows that African Americans and Latinos account for the smallest percentage of prescriptions, despite comprisingm two-thirds of people who could potentially benefit from the preventive medicines.

                                                              • March: CDC publishes an article showing an association between increased PrEP coverage and decreased HIV diagnosis rates in recent years.
                                                                • Data table: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/images/2018/hiv/PrEP-table_highres.jpg

                                                                * Estimates of persons living with HIV infection (diagnosed or undiagnosed) were derived by using back-calculation on HIV data for persons aged ≥13 years at diagnosis in the 50 states and the District of Columbia

                                                                ** The methodology to derive the estimated annual number of new HIV infections (also called HIV incidence) has changed over the years. From 1980 through 2006, numbers of HIV infections were calculated using back-calculation methodology. From 2006 through 2010, HIV infections were estimated from a statistical method that applied a stratified extrapolation approach using results from a test for recent HIV infection and HIV testing history data collected by jurisdictions that conducted HIV incidence surveillance.

                                                                *** The estimate of the number of persons diagnosed with HIV are based on HIV surveillance data for persons aged≥ 13 at time of diagnosis in the 50 states and District of Columbia.


                                                                Apple Macintosh Commercial

                                                                The original Apple Macintosh personal computer went on sale during January of 1984. The PC was the first mass-produced Apple computer that was mouse driven and had a built-in graphical user interface. The Macintosh was originally priced at about $2,500.00, which was more expensive than several other competitors’ models, but it still sold well despite the higher price. It’s success may have been due to the iconic advertisement for its release which aired during the Super Bowl. The Ridley Scott directed Orwellian-themed “1984” ad is considered to be one of greatest commercials ever created.


                                                                Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in the U.S.

                                                                Since 1983, the American electronic game market had been depressed due to a glut of poorly performing games and consoles. That same year, Nintendo released its Famicom gaming system in Japan. Renamed the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) when it was released in North America, the NES started to reverse the fortunes of the American game industry. The system launched with eighteen available titles, and was largely responsible for turning Mario the Plumber into one of the most enduring characters in the history of video games.


                                                                Flash memory

                                                                Fujio Masuoka invents flash memory in 1984 while working for Toshiba. Capable of being erased and re-programmed multiple times, flash memory quickly gained a loyal following in the computer memory industry. Although Masuoka’s idea won praise, he was unhappy with what he saw as Toshiba’s failure to reward his work, and Masuoka quit to become a professor at Tohoku University. Bucking Japan’s culture of company loyalty, he sued his former employer demanding compensation, settling in 2006 for a one-time payment of ¥87m ($758,000).


                                                                1916-17 - Jeanette Rankin Elected to Congress, ‘Night of Terror’

                                                                Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin is presented with the flag that flew at the House of Representatives during the passage of the suffrage amendment, 1918.

                                                                Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

                                                                Jeanette Rankin of Montana, a former NAWSA lobbyist, becomes the first woman elected to Congress. With the U.S. entrance into World War I, NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt commits the organization to working toward the war effort. Paul and others take a different approach, holding peaceful protests outside the White House calling for Wilson to support women’s suffrage. Many of the protesters are arrested and jailed for obstructing sidewalk traffic Paul and others undertake hunger strikes to bring attention to their cause.

                                                                On November 14, 1917, guards at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia beat and terrorize 33 women arrested for picketing, an ordeal that will become known as the “Night of Terror.”


                                                                Timeline: Events of 1984-1989

                                                                December 2-3, 1984: Poisonous gas leak from Union Carbide’s pesticides factory occurs at midnight December 3rd, 1984. In three days at least 8,000 people die. On the night of the disaster, water (that was being used for washing the lines) entered the tank containing MIC through leaking valves. The refrigeration unit, which should have kept the MIC close to zero degrees centigrade, had been shut off by the company officials to save on electricity bills. The entrance of water in the tank, full of MIC at ambient temperature, triggered off an exothermic runaway reaction and consequently the release of the lethal gas mixture. The safety systems, which in any case were not designed for such a runaway situation, were non-functioning and under repair. Lest the neighbourhood community be “unduly alarmed,” the siren in the factory had been switched off. Poison clouds from the Union Carbide factory enveloped an arc of over 20 square kilometres before the residents could run away from its deadly hold.

                                                                December 3, 1984: First Information Report (FIR) on the disaster filed at Hanumangunj police station, Bhopal.

                                                                December 7, 1984: Former Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) CEO, Warren Anderson and nine other executives are charged in the Indian courts. While visiting the Bhopal factory, Anderson is arrested. Shortly afterwards he is released on a bail of 25,000 Rupees (approximately $500 at the time) after promising that he would appear in the Indian courts to face the charges against him. Anderson was escorted to New Delhi on a special government aircraft and allowed to leave the country he never returned. B. R. Lall of India’s Central Board of Investigation (CBI) later reports that the Government of India (GOI) prevented the CBI’s attempt to extradite Anderson in the 1990s, at the request of the US Government.

                                                                COPY OF ANDERSON’S BAIL BOND [Translated from Hindi]

                                                                Bond December 7, 1984
                                                                I, Warren M Anderson s/o John Martin Anderson am resident of 63/54 Greenidge Hills Drive, Greenidge, Connecticut, USA. I am the Chairman of Union Carbide Corporation, America. I have been arrested by Hanumanganj Police Station, District Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India under Criminal Sections 304 A, 304, 120 B, 278, 429, 426 & 92. I am signing this bond for Rs. 25,000/- and thus undertaking to be present whenever and wherever I am directed to be present by the police or the Court.

                                                                Signed : Warren M. Anderson Note: Mr. Anderson’s signature was obtained after the language of this bond was translated in to English by Vijay Gokhle, the then Managing Director of UCIL, and read out to Mr. Anderson.

                                                                December 8, 1984: The Indian Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) begins its investigation.

                                                                March 1985: The GOI enacts the “Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of Claims) Act 1985,” which gives the GOI the sole power to represent the victims in the civil litigation against UCC. This was done without any consultation with the victims.

                                                                March 26, 1985: ”We have no evidence whatsoever that sabotage was behind the incident in Bhopal,” Anderson tells US Rep. Henry Waxman at a joint hearing before US House of Representative Committee. But soon after, UCC claimed that a saboteur caused the disaster, absolving itself of any wrong doing. Since then, the sabotage theory has been thoroughly debunked.

                                                                April 1985: The GOI files a US $3 billion compensation suit on behalf of the victims in US federal court (presiding over case was Judge Keenan).

                                                                May 1986: The case is sent to Indian courts on grounds of forum non-convenience, under the condition that UCC would submit to the jurisdiction of Indian courts.

                                                                September 1986: The GIO files a suit against UCC in the Bhopal District Court.

                                                                UCC’s lawyers decided to delay all legal proceedings in order to squeeze the Indian government into accepting a low settlement. They:

                                                                  • contested the legitimacy of the courts before which they were now required to appear
                                                                  • pleaded to have ‘illiterate’ victims’ claims denied
                                                                  • threatened to summon every individual survivor (rather than allow a class action suit)
                                                                  • threatened to appeal all Indian decisions in US courts
                                                                  • denied UCC was a multinational
                                                                  • claimed the gas was not ultra-hazardous
                                                                  • blamed an unnamed saboteur
                                                                  • appealed court orders for humanitarian relief, while professing its concern for the victims

                                                                  December 1, 1987: The CBI files a charge sheet and summons against Warren Anderson and eleven other accused, including UCC (USA), Union Carbide (Eastern) Hong Kong, and UCIL. Anderson (accused #1) is charged under Indian Penal Code sections 304 [culpable homicide, punishable by 10 years to life imprisonment and fine], 320 [causing grievous hurt punishable by 10 years to life imprisonment and fine], 324 [causing hurt, punishable by 3 years imprisonment and/or fine] and 429 [causing death and poisoning of animals, punishable by 3 years imprisonment and/or fine]. UCC (USA), accused #10, is also charged with culpable homicide.

                                                                  May or June 16, 1988: The Chief Judicial Magistrate (CJM) of the Bhopal District Court issues fresh summons against Warren Anderson.

                                                                  July 6, 1988: The CJM of Bhopal issues a letter of request to the American government, seeking permission for the CBI to inspect the safety systems installed at the MIC unit of UCC’s chemical plant in Institute, West Virginia – commonly known as Bhopal’s “sister-plant.”

                                                                  July 16, 1988: The CJM of Bhopal, K.L. Sisodiya, orders fresh summons to be served to Warren Anderson.

                                                                  September 24, 1988: One of several summons served to Warren Anderson through Interpol.

                                                                  November 2, 1988: Erle Slack, spokesman for UCC in Danbury, claims, “Indian courts have no jurisdiction over Mr. Anderson or the company.”

                                                                  November 15, 1988: The Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal issues bailable warrants against Warren Anderson, UCC (USA) and Union Carbide (Eastern) Hong Kong. It is reported that Anderson is unable to be located.

                                                                  February 9, 1989: The CJM of Bhopal proclaims Anderson an absconder for repeatedly ignoring summons, issues a non-bailable warrant for his arrest, and directs him to be present in court on March 31st, 1989.

                                                                  February 14, 1989: The American government grants permission to the CBI to inspect the safety systems of UCC’s Institute WV plant, for purposes of comparison of the safety standards in both plants.

                                                                  February 14 – 15, 1989: While the matter relating to payment of interim compensation was being heard before the Supreme Court of India, UCC and the GOI reached a final settlement of US $470 million, without consulting survivors or survivors’ groups. Survivors were awarded an average of US $500 each, in compensation, far below international compensation standards (and the standards set by Indian Railways for accidents). In exchange:

                                                                  • UCC was to be absolved of all civil liabilities
                                                                  • Criminal cases against UCC and its officials were to be withdrawn
                                                                  • The GOI was to defend the corporation in the event of future suits

                                                                  Public protest against the unjust settlement was followed by the filing of a number of review and writ petitions against the settlement in the Supreme Court of India by the Bhopal Gas Peedith Mahila Udyog Sangatan (BGPMUS), the Bhopal Group for Information and Action (BGIA) and other support groups.

                                                                  Union Carbide shares immediately rocket as stock markets realize the company has escaped lightly.

                                                                  May 1989: The Supreme Court of India agrees to review the 1989 settlement.


                                                                  Texas History Timeline

                                                                  Offers a chronological timeline of important dates, events, and milestones in Texas history.

                                                                  Corn farmers settle near the Presidio in the area where the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos join around 1500 BCE. It is now believed to be the oldest continuously cultivated farmland in Texas. From 800-1500 BCE, the farmers and hunters build and occupy stone dwellings located southeast of Perryton on the northern edge of the Panhandle. Today this area is called the Buried City. By 1400 CE Texas composed of numerous small tribes, the Caddo Confederacy establishes a agriculture-based civilization in east Texas. Today the Caddo Nation is a federally recognized tribe with its capital in Binger, Oklahoma.

                                                                  Spanish missionaries were the first European settlers in Texas, founding San Antonio in 1718. Hostile natives and isolation from other Spanish colonies kept Texas sparsely populated until following the Revolutionary War and the War of Mexican Independence, when the newly established Mexican government began to allow settlers from the U.S. to claim land there. Texas negotiated with the U.S. to join the union in 1845.

                                                                  16th Century Texas History Timeline

                                                                  Early European Exploration and Settlement


                                                                  1519 - Mid - Spanish explorer Alonso Alvarez de Pineda maps Texas coastline.
                                                                  1528- Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked near Galveston begin exploration.
                                                                  1541 - Francisco Vázquez de Coronado crosses the Texas Panhandle in search of in search of the seven cities of Cibola.

                                                                  1554 - Coronado dies. He is one of the first white men to explore Texas, and leader of one of 20 Spanish explorations of the area.
                                                                  1598 - April 30 - Thanksgiving is held near present-day El Paso by Juan de Onate, the members of his expedition and natives of the region.

                                                                  17th Century Texas History Timeline

                                                                  1629 - Jumano Indians requested Spanish missionaries from New Mexico to travel to the vicinity of present-day San Angelo and instruct the Jumanos about Christianity.

                                                                  1682 - First Spanish mission, Corpus Christi de la Isleta, is established a few miles from present-day El Paso.

                                                                  1685 - February 16 - French explorer Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, looking for the mouth of the Mississippi River, lands in Texas by mistake. He establishes a colony, Fort St. Louis, on Garcitas Creek in present-day Victoria County.

                                                                  March 19, 1687 - La Salle is killed by several of his own men at an unknown East Texas location.

                                                                  January 1688 - Colonists at Fort St. Louis not felled by Indians, disease, poisonous snakes and malnutrition are finished off by Karankawa Indians.

                                                                  1689 - April 2 - Spanish Gen. Alonso de Leon's expedition finds the remains of Fort St. Louis. Fearing French intentions to lay claim to Spanish territory, the Spanish begin establishing missions and settlements in East Texas.
                                                                  1690 - May - First East Texas mission under construction, San Francisco de los Tejas, near present-day Weches, Houston Co. The mission is closed in 1693.

                                                                  18th Century Texas History Timeline

                                                                  1716-1789 - Throughout the 18th Century, Spain established Catholic missions in Texas, and the towns of San Antonio, Goliad and Nacogdoches.

                                                                  1716 - Spanish build a presidio, Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de los Tejas, to protect the East Texas missions.
                                                                  1718 -May 1 - San Antonio de Valero mission, known as the Alamo was the chapel, is founded in San Antonio.
                                                                  1720 -February - San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo mission founded near San Antonio de Valero.
                                                                  1731 -

                                                                  • 3 East Texas missions moved to San Antonio because of economic troubles, and named Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion de Acuna, San Francisco de la Espada and San Juan Capistrano.
                                                                  • March 7 - 55 Canary Islanders arrive in San Antonio to establish a civilian settlement, San Fernando de Bexar.
                                                                  • Aug. 1 - First election held in Texas, voters choose officials of the municipal government of San Fernando.

                                                                  1745 - Missions at San Antonio are producing thousands of pounds of cotton annually.

                                                                  1758 - March 16 - Santa Cruz de San Sabá mission near present-day Menard destroyed and eight residents killed by Comanches and their allies.

                                                                  1759 - August - Spanish troops on a retaliatory raid are defeated by Indian residents of a large encampment at Spanish Fort in present-day Montague County.

                                                                  1766 - Sept. 4 - Texas' first recorded hurricane strikes near Galveston.

                                                                  1779 - Group of settlers led by Antonio Gil Ybarbo (sometimes spelled Ibarvo or Y'barvo) establishes a civilian community near an abandoned mission site the new town is called Nacogdoches.

                                                                  19th Century Texas History Timeline

                                                                  1810 - Sept. 16 - Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo and several hundred of his parishioners seize the prison at Dolores, Mexico, beginning Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.

                                                                  1812 -August 8 - About 130-men strong, the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition crossed the Sabine from Louisiana in a rebel movement against Spanish rule in Texas.

                                                                  • Texas' first newspaper, Gaceta de Texas, founded by Jose Alvarez de Toledo in Nacogdoches.
                                                                  • Dec. 26 - Spanish government grants Moses Austin permission to establish a colony of Anglo-Americans in the Texas area. When he dies the following June, his son, Stephen F. Austin, receives authority to continue the colonizing effort.

                                                                  1814 - June- Moses Austin dies, his son, Stephen F. Austin, receives authority to continue the colonizing effort.

                                                                  1817-1820 - Jean Laffite occupied Galveston Island and used it as a base for his smuggling and privateering.

                                                                  1818 - September 12 - A hurricane wrecks the fleet of pirate Jean Lafitte in Galveston.

                                                                  • Aug. 24 - Mexico gains independence from Spain.
                                                                  • October 13 Jane Long gives birth to the first Anglo child born in Texas, a girl named Mary James.

                                                                  1823 - Jan. 3 - Stephen F. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the region of the Brazos River. Mexican officials approve Austin's plan to bring three hundred families into his colony. This group becomes known as the "Old Three Hundred."

                                                                  Mid-1824 - Constitution of 1824 gave Mexico a republican form of government. It failed to define the rights of the states within the republic, including Texas

                                                                  1826 - Dec. 21 - The Declaration of Independence of the republic of Fredonia is signed at Nacogdoches.

                                                                  1827- January 31 - This so-called Fredonian Rebellion is an attempt by empresario Haden Edwards to separate his colony from Mexico. The rebels flee when approached by Mexican troops.

                                                                  1829 - October - First of several large groups of Irish immigrants arrive to settle in South Texas.

                                                                  1830 - April 6 - Mexican government stops legal immigration into Texas from the United States except in special cases. Relations between Anglo settlers and the Mexican government deteriorate.

                                                                  1831 - Johann Friedrich Ernst, his wife and five children are the first German family to arrive in Texas, settling in present-day Austin County.

                                                                  Revolution and the Republic of Texas


                                                                  1832 - June 26 - First bloodshed of the Texas Revolution takes place at Velasco when Texans, transporting a cannon from Brazoria to Anahuac, are challenged by Mexican forces at Velasco. The Mexicans surrender on June 29.
                                                                  1835

                                                                  • Oct. 2 - Mexican troops attempt to retrieve a cannon that had been given to Gonzales colonists for protection from Indian attack. The skirmish that ensues as Gonzales residents dare the Mexicans to "come and take it" is considered the opening battle of the Texas Revolution.
                                                                  • Oct. 10 - Gail Borden begins publishing the newspaper "Telegraph and Texas Register" at San Felipe de Austin.
                                                                  • Nov. 1 - A "consultation" convenes at San Felipe on Nov. 7 the delegates agree to establish a provisional government.
                                                                  • Nov. 24 - The Texas Rangers organization is officially established by Texas' provisional government. Although Stephen F. Austin had hired 10 frontiersmen as "rangers" to help protect his colonists against Indian raids in 1823, not until 1835 was the law-enforcement group formally organized.
                                                                  • March 2 - Texas Declaration of Independence is adopted at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
                                                                  • March 6 - 3-day siege of the Alamo by Mexican troops led by Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ends on this day with a battle in which all remaining defenders are killed.
                                                                  • March 10 - Sam Houston abandons Gonzales and retreats eastward to avoid the advancing Mexican army. Panicky settlers in the area flee as well in an exodus called the Runaway Scrape.
                                                                  • March 27 - About 350 Texan prisoners, including their commander James Fannin, are executed at Goliad by order of Santa Anna. An estimated 30 Texans escape.
                                                                  • April 21 - In a battle lasting 18 minutes, Texan troops led by Sam Houston defeat the Mexican army commanded by Santa Anna at San Jacinto near present-day Houston. Houston reports that 630 Mexican troops were killed and 730 were taken prisoner. Of the Texas troops, nine of a force of 910 were killed or mortally wounded, and 30 were less seriously wounded.
                                                                  • May 14 - Santa Anna and Texas' provisional president David Burnet sign two Treaties of Velasco - one public, the other secret - ending the Texas Revolution. The treaties were, however, violated by both sides. Texas' independence was not recognized by Mexico and Texas' boundary was not determined until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War, was signed in 1848.
                                                                  • Sept. 5 - Voters of the new republic choose their first elected officials: Sam Houston becomes president and Lorenzo de Zavala, vice president. The voters also overwhelmingly approve a referendum requesting annexation by the United States. US President Martin Van Buren refuses to consider it, however, citing fear of war with Mexico and constitutional scruples.
                                                                  • Oct. - The first Congress of the Republic of Texas convenes at Columbia.

                                                                  1837 - Republic of Texas is officially recognized by the United States, and later by France, England, the Netherlands and Belgium.

                                                                  1839 - Aug. 1 - First sale of town lots in the new capital of the Republic, which is named for Stephen F. Austin, is held.

                                                                  • March 19 - Comanches, led by a dozen chiefs, meet with officials of Texas government to negotiate a peace treaty. Believing the Comanches to have reneged on a promise to release all white prisoners, the Texans take the chiefs prisoner. During the Council House fight that follows, 35 Comanches are killed, as are seven Texans.
                                                                  • Aug. 5 - Near Hallettsville, Comanches, in retaliation for the Council House Fight, begin killing and looting their way across Central Texas. Texas Rangers and a volunteer army defeat the Comanches on Aug. 11 at Plum Creek near Lockhart.

                                                                  1841 - June 20 - The Santa Fe Expedition, launched without Texas Congressional authorization by Pres. Mirabeau B. Lamar, leaves Central Texas on its way west to establish trade with and solidify Texas' claims to territory around Santa Fe. Members of group are taken prisoner by Mexican troops, marched to Mexico City and imprisoned. They are finally released in 1842.

                                                                  1842 - The first seeds of large-scale German immigration to Texas are sown when a German society, the Adelsverein, purchases land for settlements in Central Texas.

                                                                  Annexation and Statehood

                                                                  • February 1 - Baylor University is founded.
                                                                  • March 1 - US Congress passes a "Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States."
                                                                  • mid-March - The first of many large groups of Germans arrive in Central Texas, settling at New Braunfels.
                                                                  • July 4 - The Texas Constitutional Convention votes to accept the United States annexation proposal it drafts an Annexation Ordinance and State Constitution to submit to the voters of Texas.
                                                                  • Oct. 13 - Texas voters overwhelmingly approve annexation, the new state constitution and the annexation ordinance.
                                                                  • Dec. 29 - The US Congress approves, and President James K. Polk signs, the "Joint Resolution for the Admission of the State of Texas into the Union." Texas becomes the 28th state.
                                                                  • Feb. 19 - Formal transfer of government take place until this date.
                                                                  • May 8 - Battle of Palo Alto near Brownsville is first major battle of the two-year Mexican War.

                                                                  1848 - Feb. 2 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the War with Mexico and specifying the location of the international boundary.

                                                                  • Feb. 11 - The first railroad to actually begin operation in Texas is chartered by the state government. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado begins operation in 1853.
                                                                  • Nov. 25 - Texas' governor signs the Compromise of 1850, in which Texas gives up its claim to land that includes more than half of what is now New Mexico, about a third of Colorado, a corner of Oklahoma and a small portion of Wyoming in exchange for the United States' assumption of $10 million in debt Texas keeps its public lands.

                                                                  1854 - Two reservations are established for Indians in West-Central Texas: one for Comanches on the Clear Fork of the Brazos in Throckmorton County, the other for more sedentary Indian groups, such as Tawakonis, Wacos and Tonkawas, near Fort Belknap in Young County.

                                                                  • March 27 - Col. Robert E. Lee arrives in San Antonio. He serves at Camp Cooper on the Comanche reservation beginning April 9. He returns to Washington for a short time, coming back to San Antonio and Fort Mason in February 1860.
                                                                  • April 29 - Fifty-three camels arrive at port of Indianola for a US Army experiment using them for pack animals in the arid areas of the Southwest.

                                                                  1858 - Sept. 15 - Southern route of the Butterfield Overland Mail crosses Texas on its way between St. Louis, Mo., and the West Coast. Service discontinued in March 1861 at the outbreak of the Civil War.

                                                                  • July 13 - Violent clashes between Juan "Cheno" Cortina and Anglo lawmen begin in the Brownsville area in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Texas Rangers and federal troops eventually halt the so-called "Cortina War" in 1875.
                                                                  • July - Indians on the West-Central Texas reservations are moved by the federal government to reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).

                                                                  Secession and Civil War

                                                                  • Feb. 1 - The Secession Convention approves an ordinance withdrawing Texas from Union the action is ratified by the voters on Feb. 23 in a referendum vote. Secession is official on March 2.
                                                                  • Feb. 13 - Robert E. Lee is ordered to return to Washington from regimental headquarters at Fort Mason to assume command of the Union Army. Instead, Lee resigns his commission he assumes command of the Confederate Army by June 1862.
                                                                  • March 1 - Texas accepted as a state by the provisional government of the Confederate States of America, even before its secession from the Union is official.
                                                                  • March 5 - The Secession Convention approves an ordinance accepting Confederate statehood.
                                                                  • March 16 - Sam Houston resigns as governor in protest against secession
                                                                  • Aug. 10 - About 68 Union loyalists, mostly German immigrants from the area of Comfort, in Central Texas, start for Mexico in an attempt to reach US troops 19 are killed by Confederates on the Nueces River. Eight others are killed on Oct. 18 at the Rio Grande. Others drown attempting to swim the river. Their deaths are commemorated in Comfort by the Treue der Union (True to the Union) monument.
                                                                  • October - Forty-two men thought to be Union sympathizers are hanged at various times during October in Gainesville.


                                                                  1865 - May 13 - The Battle of Palmito Ranch is fought near Brownsville, after the official end of the Civil War, because word of the war's end at Appomattox on April 9 has not yet reached troops in Texas.

                                                                  Reconstruction to the 20th Century

                                                                  • June 19 - Gen. Gordon Granger arrives at Galveston to announce that slavery has been abolished, an event commemorated today by the festival known as Juneteenth.
                                                                  • Sept. - The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau) begins operating in Texas, charged with helping former slaves make the transition to freedom.
                                                                  • March 15 - The Constitutional Convention approves an ordinance to nullify the actions of the Secession Convention.
                                                                  • Aug. 20 - President Andrew Johnson issues a proclamation of peace between the United States and Texas.
                                                                  • Cattle drives, which had been occasional in the 1830s, sporadic during the 1840s and 1850s, and almost nonexistent during the Civil War, begin in earnest, mostly to markets and railheads in Midwest. They are at their peak for only about 20 years, until the proliferation of railroads makes them unnecessary.

                                                                  1867-1870 - Congressional (or Military) Reconstruction replaces Presidential Reconstruction.

                                                                  1868 - Large-scale irrigation begins in Texas when canals are built in the vicinity of Del Rio.

                                                                  1869 - Nov. 30 - Texas voters approve a new state constitution.
                                                                  1870

                                                                  • March 30 - President Grant signs the act readmitting Texas to Congressional representation.
                                                                  • Edmund J. Davis becomes the first Republican governor of Texas.

                                                                  1871 - May - Seven men in a wagon train are massacred at Salt Creek, about 20 miles west of Jacksboro, by Kiowas and Comanches led by chiefs Satanta, Big Tree, Satank and Eagle Heart.
                                                                  1872 - Oct. - Construction begins on the Texas & Pacific Railway the 125-mile stretch between Longview and Dallas opens for service on July 1, 1873.
                                                                  1873

                                                                  • Black "Buffalo Soldiers" are first posted to Texas, eventually serving at virtually every frontier fort in West Texas from the Rio Grande to the Panhandle, as well as in other states.
                                                                  • Houston and Texas Central Railway reaches the Red River, connecting there with the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad and creating the first all-rail route from Texas to St. Louis and the East.
                                                                  • Jan. 17 - Inauguration of Democrat Richard Coke as governor marks the end of Reconstruction in Texas.
                                                                  • Sept. 28 - Col. Ranald Mackenzie leads the 4th US Cavalry in the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, south of present-day Amarillo, an encounter that ends with the confinement of southern Plains Indians in reservations in Indian Territory. This makes possible the wholesale settlement of the western part of the state.
                                                                  • Feb. 15 - Present state constitution is adopted.
                                                                  • Oct. 4 - The Agricultural and Mechanical College, later Texas A&M University, opens at College Station, becoming the first public institution of higher learning in the state.
                                                                  • Charles Goodnight establishes the JA Ranch in Palo Duro Canyon, the first cattle ranch located in the Panhandle.

                                                                  1877 - Sept. - The El Paso Salt War is the culmination of a long dispute caused by Anglos' attempts to take over salt-mining rights at the foot of Guadalupe Peak, a traditionally Mexican-American salt source.

                                                                  1881 - Dec. 16 - The Texas & Pacific Railway reaches Sierra Blanca in West Texas, about 90 miles east of El Paso.

                                                                  1883 - Sept. 15 - The University of Texas classes begin.

                                                                  1884 - Fence-cutting wars prompt the Texas Legislature to pass a law making fence-cutting a felony.

                                                                  1886 - Aug. 19-21 - Hurricane destroys or damages every house in the port of Indianola, finishing the job started by another storm 11 years earlier. Indianola is never rebuilt.

                                                                  1888 - May 16 - Present state capitol is dedicated.

                                                                  1891 - The Railroad Commission, proposed by Gov. James Hogg, is established by the Texas legislature to regulate freight rates and to establish rules for railroad operations.

                                                                  1894 - June 9 - Oil is discovered at Corsicana a commercial field opens in 1896, becoming the first small step in Texas' rise as a major oil producer.

                                                                  1898 - May 16 - Teddy Roosevelt arrives in San Antonio to recruit and train "Rough Riders" for the First Volunteer Cavalry to fight in the Spanish-American War in Cuba.

                                                                  1898-1899 - Texas experiences its coldest winter on record.

                                                                  20th Century Texas History Timeline

                                                                  1900 - Sept. 8 - The "Great Hurricane," destroys much of Galveston and kills 6,000 people there.

                                                                  1901 - Jan. 10 - Oil found by mining engineer Capt. A.F. Lucas at Spindletop near Beaumont catapults Texas into the petroleum age.

                                                                  1902 - Poll tax becomes a requirement for voting.

                                                                  1906 - Texans votes for US senator in the Democratic primary, although the Texas legislature retains ultimate appointment authority, primary voters can express their preferences.

                                                                  1910 - March 2 - Lt. Benjamin D. Foulois makes first military air flight in a Wright brothers plane at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio.

                                                                  1911-1920 - Mexican civil war spills across the border, as refugees seek safety, combatants seek each other, and Texas settlements are raided for supplies by all sides in the fighting. Pancho Villa and his followers are active along the border during some of this time.

                                                                  1916 - Texas voters able to directly elect US senators.

                                                                  1917-1918 - World War I.

                                                                  1917 - Gov. James Ferguson is impeached and convicted he leaves office.

                                                                  • - March - Texas women win the right to vote in primary elections.
                                                                  • Annie Webb Blanton becomes the first woman elected to a statewide office when she is elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
                                                                  • Responding to anti-German sentiment, Gov. William P. Hobby vetoes appropriations for German Dept. of The University of Texas.
                                                                  • Texans adopt a prohibition amendment to the state constitution.

                                                                  1920 - Large-scale agricultural irrigation begins in the High Plains.

                                                                  • Miriam "Ma" Ferguson becomes Texas' first woman governor, serving as a figurehead for her husband, former Gov. James E. Ferguson.
                                                                  • Sept. 30 - Texas Tech University begins classes in Lubbock as Texas Technological College.

                                                                  1928 - June 26-29 - The Democratic National Convention is held in Houston, the first nominating convention held in a Southern city since 1860.

                                                                  1929 - Feb. 17 - The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is founded in Corpus Christi.

                                                                  1930 - Sept. 5 - The Daisy Bradford #3 well, drilled near Turnertown in Rusk County by wildcatter C.M. (Dad) Joiner, blows in, heralding the discovery of the huge East Texas Oil Field.

                                                                  1935 - Two years after federal prohibition was repealed, Texas voters ratify the repeal of the state's prohibition law.

                                                                  1936 - June 6 - Texas Centennial Exposition opens at Dallas' Fair Park it runs until Nov. 29.

                                                                  1937 - March 18 - A massive explosion, blamed on a natural-gas leak beneath the London Consolidated School building in Rusk County, kills an estimated 296 students and teachers. Subsequent deaths of people injured in the explosion bring the death count to 311. As a result, the Texas legislature requires that a malodorant be added to the odorless gas so that leaks can be more easily detected.

                                                                  1941-1945 - World War II.

                                                                  1943 - June - A race riot in Beaumont leads to a declaration of martial law.

                                                                  1947 - April 16 - The French-owned SS Grandcamp, carrying ammonium nitrate, explodes in the Texas City harbor, followed the next morning by the explosion of the SS High Flyer. The disaster kills almost 600 and injures at least 4,000 more. The concussion is felt 75 miles away in Port Arthur, and the force creates a 15-foot tidal wave.

                                                                  1948 - Lyndon B. Johnson beats Coke Stevenson in the US Senate race by 87 votes. The winning margin in the disputed primary is registered in Ballot Box No. 13 in Jim Wells County.

                                                                  1949 - Aug. 24 - The University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston admits its first black student.

                                                                  1950 - The US Supreme Court orders racial integration of The University of Texas law school.

                                                                  • Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes the first Texas-born President of the United States.
                                                                  • May 11 - A tornado kills 114, injures 597 at Waco 150 homes and 185 other buildings are destroyed.
                                                                  • 1953'
                                                                  • May 22 - The Tidelands Bill is signed by Pres. Eisenhower, giving Texas the rights to its offshore oil.

                                                                  1954 - Texas women gain the right to serve on juries.

                                                                  1958 -Sept. 12 - Integrated circuit, developed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments, Dallas, is successfully tested, ushering in the semiconductor and electronics age.

                                                                  1961 -John Tower wins special election for US Senate, becoming the first Republican senator from Texas since Reconstruction.

                                                                  1962 - NASA opens the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. The center moves to a new campus-like building complex in 1964. It is renamed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on Aug. 17, 1973.

                                                                  1963 - Nov. 22 - President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas vice president Lyndon B. Johnson succeeds to the office, becoming the 36th US president.

                                                                  1964 - Poll tax is abolished by the 24th Amendment to the US Constitution as a requirement for voting for federal offices. It is retained in Texas, however, for state and local offices.

                                                                  • The Texas Legislature is reapportioned on the principle of one person, one vote.
                                                                  • June 3 - San Antonio native Ed White becomes the first American to walk in space.
                                                                  • The poll tax is repealed as a requirement for voting in all elections by amendment of the Texas Constitution.
                                                                  • Barbara Jordan of Houston becomes the first black woman elected to the Texas Senate.
                                                                  • Aug. 1 - Charles Whitman kills 17 people, shooting them from the observation deck of the main-building tower on The University of Texas campus in Austin.

                                                                  1967 - Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) is incorporated in Texas its first national office is in San Antonio.

                                                                  1969 - July 20 - Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong transmits the first words from the surface of the moon: "Houston, the Eagle has landed."

                                                                  1971 - Securities and Exchange Commission investigates illegal manipulation of stock transactions involving Frank Sharp and his Sharpstown State Bank of Houston.

                                                                  1972 - The Sharpstown Scandal results in the conviction of House speaker Gus Mutscher and two associates for conspiracy and bribery

                                                                  1974 - Jan. 8 - Constitutional Convention meets to attempt to write a new state constitution. However, the delegates, comprising the membership of the 63rd Legislature, become mired in divisive politics, and the convention adjourns on July 30, 1974, without a document.

                                                                  1978 - William Clements becomes the first Republican governor of Texas since Reconstruction.

                                                                  1979 -April 10 - Several tornadoes kill 53 in West Texas, including 42 in Wichita Falls, and cause $400 million in damages.

                                                                  1984 - The no-pass-no-play rule is part of an education-reform package enacted by the Texas Legislature.

                                                                  1984 - Aug. 20-23 - The National Republican Convention is held in Dallas.

                                                                  1985 - The Federal Home Loan Bank Board suspends deposit insurance for Texas savings-and-loan companies applying for state charters. Three years later, after uncovering widespread insider abuse at Texas lending institutions, federal regulators announce bail-out plans for many Texas thrifts and begin prosecution of S&L officials.

                                                                  1988 - Houstonian George Bush is elected president of the United States.

                                                                  1990 - Democrat Ann Richards becomes the first woman governor of Texas in her own right.

                                                                  • April 19 - Siege that began on Feb. 28 ended, federal agents storm the compound called Mount Carmel near Waco, where cult leader David Koresh and his followers, called Branch Davidians, had reportedly been storing a large cache of assault weapons. The assault and ensuing fire kill four agents and 86 Branch Davidians.
                                                                  • Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison becomes the first woman to serve as US Senator from Texas.

                                                                  21st Century Texas History Timeline

                                                                  2000 - Former Texas Gov. George W. Bush elected President of the United States.

                                                                  2001 - Enron filed for bankruptcy protection

                                                                  2003 - Space shuttle Columbia broke apart across southeastern Texas as it descended toward its planned landing, all crew members were lost

                                                                  • Republican majority leader in US House of Representatives, Tom DeLay, indicted with criminal conspiracy by grand jury in Texas
                                                                  • Hurricane Rita forced over 1 million to evacuate

                                                                  2006 - Two Enron executives convicted of conspiracy, fraud

                                                                  2007 - Gunman at Johnson Space Center in Houston killed male hostage, self

                                                                  2008 - Hurricane Ike struck Texas Gulf Coast, caused major flooding, billions of dollars in damages

                                                                  2009 - Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan opened fire on fellow soldiers at Fort Hood military base, killed 13, injured 30

                                                                  • Texas wildfires destroyed over 1 million acres, burned over 1,000 homes
                                                                  • Governor Rick Perry announced candidacy for Republican nominee in 2012 presidential race

                                                                  2013 - On Thursday, April 18, 2013, a massive explosion at a fertilizer plant on the edge of the small Texas town of West killed at least 35 people, wounded more than 170, leveled dozens and dozens of homes and prompted authorities to evacuate half their community of 2,800. West is a community of about 2,800 people, about 75 miles south of Dallas and 120 miles north of Austin.


                                                                  Timeline of UK miners' strike of 1984-85

                                                                  LONDON -- Following is a chronology of events in Britain's miners strike, the longest major labor dispute in the nation's history: --- 1984 March 6 -- State-run National Coal Board announces plans to cut coal output by 4 million tons to stem annual loss of $340 million a year. National Union of Mineworkers say this will mean closing 20 pits and loss of 20,000 jobs. Miners strike in South Yorkshire and some Scottish pits.

                                                                  March 8 -- Union executive backs nationwide strikes.

                                                                  March 10 -- Durham and Kent coalfields join strike.

                                                                  March 12 -- Strike nationwide. 81 pits are out but 83 work normally. Union moderates call for a strike ballot. National Coal Board says Britain has 23 million tons of coal in stock with another 24 million at the power stations.

                                                                  March 14 -- Violent picketing shuts down more mines. 132 pits shut. Some 136,000 of Britain's 175,000 miners now on strike. High Court orders miners leaders to stop backing roving pickets.

                                                                  March 15 -- Striking miner dies on picket line at Ollerton in the Midlands.

                                                                  March 16 -- Government dispatches 3,000 extra police to the Midlands.

                                                                  March 17 -- Midlands, Northeast and Northwest miners vote against strike.

                                                                  March 19 -- Some 8,000 police guard mines roadblocks across Midlands in the biggest police operation in a labor dispute since the 1926 general strhke.

                                                                  April 1 -- Some railmen refuse to run Midlands coal trains.

                                                                  May 1 -- Rival groups of miners throw stones and hurl bricks at each other when 5,000 working miners stage a right-to-work march. May 23 - First talks break down. Union leader Arthur Scargill walks out when officialsr refuse to discuss closure plans.

                                                                  May 25 -- Mass picketing of Orgreave coking plant.

                                                                  May 29 -- Worst violence so far. 82 arrests, 62 people injured in clashes at Orgreave. Scargill leads 7,000 pickets, accuses police of brutality. Police attack miners with rocks, bottles, potatoes studded with nails. Ambulance men issued with riot helmets and shields.

                                                                  May 30 -- Scargill arrested on Orgreave picket line.

                                                                  June 7 -- 10,000 miners march through London to Parliament. Police arrest 110. Opposition Labor Party accuses Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives of intervening directly to defeat miners. Government affirms it will not interfere in any Coal Board settlement with miners.

                                                                  June 12 -- Cost of policing is estimated at 65 million pounds.

                                                                  June 15 -- Miner killed by truck at Ferrybridge power station.

                                                                  June 21 -- Coal Board chief Ian McGregor warns the strike 'could go on until December or even longer.'

                                                                  June 18 -- Scargill knocked unconscious in Orgreave violence. Police deny he was hit by a truncheon.

                                                                  July 2 -- Steel union leaders reject call for steel strike as 'completely unacceptable.'

                                                                  July 4 -- British Broadcasting Corporation reports 3,900 arrests, two dead, 640 injured in strike so far. Police making up to 400 pounds a week overtime.

                                                                  July 5 -- Union, Coal Board officials meet for peace talks.

                                                                  July 9 -- National dock strike over movement of coal.

                                                                  July 18 -- Third round of peace talks collapse.

                                                                  July 21 -- Dock strike ends.

                                                                  July 31 -- South Wales miners assets seized and fined $55,000 for contempt of court over picketing.

                                                                  Aug. 23 -- Second national dock strike called.

                                                                  Sept. 9 -- Secret peace talks collapse again.

                                                                  Oct. 10 -- Union fined $200,000 for contempt of court.

                                                                  Oct. 16 -- Pit supervisors vote to strike Oct. 25.

                                                                  Oct. 24 -- Supervisors strike called off.

                                                                  Oct. 25 -- High Court orders seizure of union fund.

                                                                  Oct. 28 -- Sunday Times discloses the miners asked Libya for money.

                                                                  Nov. 5 -- Union funds of $3 million seized in Dublin.

                                                                  Nov. 12 -- 1,200 miners go back to work.

                                                                  Nov. 19 -- Back to work move accelerates. 2,282 return.

                                                                  Nov. 30 -- Taxi driver killed taking miner to work in South Wales.

                                                                  Dec. 2 -- Special union conference votes to fight on.

                                                                  Dec. 20 -- Nottinghamshire miners vote to defy union rules.

                                                                  Dec. 25 -- Striking miners celebrate Christmas despite nine months without pay. 1985 Jan. 10 -- Union votes to expel Nottinghamshire.

                                                                  Jan. 17 -- 24-hour rail strike in support of miners.

                                                                  Jan. 21 -- Secret meeting between union and Coal Board to effort settlement.

                                                                  Feb. 20 -- Miners reject peace plan by trades unionleaders and government.


                                                                  Watch the video: i ricordi del campionato serie A 19841985 (January 2022).