Admiral Sir William Batten (d.1667)

Admiral Sir William Batten

Experienced sailor who commanded Parliament's navy in the second half of the Civil War. Batten had been a ship's captain since 1626, serving as surveyor of the navy from 1638. When the Civil War began, the admiral of the fleet, the earl of Warwick, sided with Parliament, as did Batten, who became his second in command. The main task of the navy was to prevent supplied from the continent reaching the King. Early in February 1643 Queen Henrietta Maria was ready to attempt the sailing. Guarded by a Dutch fleet under Martin van Tromp, she sailed with a convoy of supplies, and a number of professional soldiers. Batten failed to intercept the convoy at sea, catching it in Bridlington Harbour, bombarding the unloaded, and hitting the Queen's lodgings. However, he was forced off when von Tromp threatened to fire on him.

Much of Batten's time was spent helping the fighting on land. When the Royalists in the south-west captured Weymouth, and besieged Melcombe, just over the bay, Batten was on his ship at the Downs, and sailed to Melcombe, landing 150 of his sailors in the town. Thus reinforced, the garrison were able to throw back a Royalist attack. By this point, Warwick's position was threatened by the Self Denying Ordinance, and on 22 May 1645 Batten was appointed as commander in chief of the fleet, although he was not promoted from Vice-Admiral, and the appointment was at least initially seen as temporary. Soon after, Batten was involved in his most impressive victory. At the battle of Colby Moor (1 August 1645), Batten helped Sir Rowland Laugharne defeat a Royalist army under Sir Edward Stradling, by landing a force of sailors behind the royalist position, in one of the few amphibious operations of the war. Likewise, he was present at the siege of Dartmouth, providing 200 sailors for the final assault (18 January 1645). He was also present for one of the last actions of the war, the siege of Pendennis Castle, which only ended on 16 August 1646.

Despite his war record, by the end of 1646 the remaining Royalists were convinced that Batten was discontented with the nature of Parliament's victory. Whatever the truth at that point, by the middle of 1647 they were proved correct. In mid-1647 the Independents gained power in London. Batten, as a Presbyterian disliked the new regime, which quickly moved to attack it's enemies. By August, with several of their colleagues under arrest, six Presbyterian MP's, including Denzil Holles and William Waller, decided to flee to Holland. Their ship had nearly reached safety when it was overhauled by a Parliamentary ship and returned to the Downs. However, Batten released them, and returned them to Holland. As a result, in September he was forced to resign, and was replaced by Colonel Rainsborough, an Independent with some experience at sea, who was loathed by the mostly Presbyterian navy.

The tension in the navy surfaced on 27 May 1648 (2nd Civil War). The Fleet refused to allow Rainsborough onboard his flagship, and arrested those officers known to be Independents. In response, Parliament re-appointed the earl of Warwick as Lord High Admiral, but even he was initially unable to regain control of the fleet in the Downs. Meanwhile, in June Batten was summoned before the Derby House Committee under suspicion of spreading disaffection in the fleet. Instead of attending, he boarded the Constant Warwick at Portsmouth, and persuaded the crew to join him in sailing to Holland to join the Prince of Wales. Prince Charles welcomed him, knighted him, and made him Rear-Admiral of what for a brief period was an impressive Royalist navy. However, after a failed attempt to bring the earl of Warwick to battle in the Thames (August 1648), the Royalist fleet was blockaded in Dutch Waters, and rapidly fell apart. Warwick offered an indemnity for those who wished to return, and Batten took advantage of it. He survived the Commonwealth, and on the Restoration was reinstated at surveyor of the navy (1660), ending his life as master of Trinity House (from 1663).

Books on the English Civil War | Subject Index: English Civil War

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Batten, Sir William

BATTEN, SIR WILLIAM (floruit 1626-1667), British sailor, son of Andrew Batten, master in the royal navy, first appears as taking out letters of marque in 1626, and in 1638 he obtained the post of surveyor to the navy, probably by purchase. In March 1642 he was appointed second-in-command under the earl of Warwick, the parliamentary admiral who took the fleet out of the king’s hands. It was Vice-Admiral Batten’s squadron which bombarded Scarborough when Henrietta Maria landed there. He was accused (it appears unjustly) by the Royalists of directing his fire particularly on the house occupied by the queen, and up to the end of the First Civil War showed himself a steady partisan of the parliament. To the end of the First Civil War, Batten continued to patrol the English seas, and his action in 1647 in bringing into Portsmouth a number of Swedish ships of war and merchantmen, which had refused the customary salute to the flag, was approved by parliament. When the Second Civil War began he was distrusted by the Independents and removed from his command, though he confessed his continued willingness to serve the state. When part of the fleet revolted against the parliament, and joined the prince of Wales in Holland, May 1648, Batten went with them. He was knighted by the prince, but being suspected by the Royalists, was put ashore mutinously in Holland and returned to England. He lived in retirement during the Commonwealth period. At the Restoration Sir William Batten became once more surveyor of the navy. In this office he was in constant intercourse with Pepys, whose diary frequently mentions him but the insinuations of Pepys against him must not be taken too seriously, as there is no evidence to show that Batten in making a profit from his office fell below the standards of the time. In 1661 he became M.P. for Rochester, and in 1663 he was made master of the Trinity House. He died in 1667.

There is no separate life of Batten, but many notices of him will be found in Penn’s Life of Sir W. Penn, and in Pepys’ Diary.

"Having connotations of" is not the same as "Is derived of" , I think ?

for the text of a drinking song "Monsieur Mingo", and you can hear it as well if your computer can handle Real Audio files.

This is from Henry IV, Part Two, and it was published in a collection of drinking songs in 1611

I suggest the name "Mingo" survived the transition because it was a well known name with a certain connotation, while other black servants that are mentioned for instance are called "Jack".

On This Day in Trinity House History – 13 January

The Elder Brethren Required as Nautical Assessors at Admiralty Court

“A Clerk belonging to the Court of Common Pleas attends with the Crier of the said Court, with three rules from the Judges, and served three of the Brethren with notice to appear at Westminster on the 5th February next and give their opinion in a case depending, the business wholly relating to the sea.”

One of the many duties of the Elder Brethren is sitting, when summoned, to assist the Judge of the Admiralty Court as nautical assessors on the bench of that court when questions of seamanship, navigation and nautical knowledge arise, and when the High Court sits as a prize court. The two Brethren best acquainted with the issues raised by the case in question attend the Judge as Assessors.

The first reported case of assessors assisting the High Court of Admiralty is in 1541, and the Charter of James II prescribes that the Master, Wardens and Assistants, and their Deputies, being always at the king’s call, are exempted from all manner of land service except Admiralty Sessions, “which they and every one of them shall be tied and bound to attend, upon their Perils, being lawfully summoned.”

Trinity House on Water Lane Burns Down

The Board minute for 14 January 1715 recorded

“A terrible Fire hap’ning last night at Bear Key in Thames Street which burnt with such violence that about two this morning it took the houses in Water Lane and entirely consum’d the Trinity House belonging to this Corporation. The Deputy Master, Wardens, and Elder Brethren… mett together to consider what was proper to be immediately done on this dismal occasion, and Resolved that the business of the Ballast Office, and other affairs of the Corporation be for the present transacted at the Mitre Tavern in Fenchurch Street…”

The Corporation’s Clerk John Whormby’s 1746 account of the Corporation recalls a number of invaluable archives lost through fire and the chaos of moving from site to site: the Book of By-Laws various charters and grants, Court minutes, reports, letters ancient records of ballastage, buoyage and beaconage, several in Latin “a small venerable vellum book of great antiquity” containing translations of the charters of Henry and Elizabeth, the By-Laws of 1514, the form of oaths in Elizabeth’s reign a book of Proceedings in the Courts of Exchequer and Chancery and the House of Peers and copies of books lost to Trinity House but found in Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge.

The house, which Trinity House had occupied since 1660, was rebuilt after the fire and the Corporation continued to use it as a headquarters until 1796, at which time the current headquarters was built and opened on Tower Hill.

Captain William Crispin

16 Sunday Sep 2012

probable to be near and work in association with Admiral Penn. He later lived in Kilrush, County Clare, in close association with Admiral Penn, for some 20 years. He may well have been an administrator of English ‘justice’ in the county

certainly he will have been awarded for his previous Royalist sympathies and activities. There is no mention that he became a Quaker while in Ireland – though it is an outside possibility.

as landowners and administrators.

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Prince Louis of Battenberg was born on 25 June 1900 at Frogmore House in the Home Park, Windsor, Berkshire. He was the youngest child and the second son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, who was a daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg. [1] His paternal grandparents' marriage was morganatic because his grandmother was not of royal lineage as a result, he and his father were styled "Serene Highness" rather than "Grand Ducal Highness", were not eligible to be titled Princes of Hesse and were given the less exalted Battenberg title. His elder siblings were Princess Alice of Battenberg (later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh), Princess Louise of Battenberg (later Queen Louise of Sweden), and Prince George of Battenberg (later George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven). [1]

He was baptised in the large drawing room of Frogmore House on 17 July 1900 by the Dean of Windsor, Philip Eliot. His godparents were Queen Victoria, Nicholas II of Russia (represented by the child's father) and Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg (represented by Lord Edward Clinton). [2] He wore the original 1841 royal christening gown at the ceremony. [2]

Mountbatten's nickname among family and friends was "Dickie" however "Richard" was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of "Nicky", but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family ("Nicky" was particularly used to refer to Nicholas II, the last Tsar), "Nicky" was changed to "Dickie". [3]

Prince Louis was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life he was then sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire [4] and on to the Royal Naval College, Osborne, in May 1913. [5] His mother's younger sister was Russian Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. In childhood he visited the Imperial Court of Russia at St Petersburg and became intimate with the Russian Imperial Family, harbouring romantic feelings towards his maternal first cousin Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, whose photograph he kept at his bedside for the rest of his life. [6]

From 1914 to 1918, Britain and its allies were at war with the Central Powers, led by the German Empire. To appease British nationalist sentiment, King George V issued a royal proclamation changing the name of the British royal house from the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor. The king's British relatives followed suit with Prince Louis's father dropping his German titles and name and adopting the surname Mountbatten, an anglicization of Battenberg. His father was subsequently created Marquess of Milford Haven.

Early career Edit

Mountbatten was posted as midshipman to the battlecruiser HMS Lion in July 1916 and, after seeing action in August 1916, transferred to the battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth during the closing phases of the First World War. [5] In June 1917, when the royal family stopped using their German names and titles and adopted the more British-sounding "Windsor", Prince Louis of Battenberg became Louis Mountbatten and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946. [7] He paid a visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918. [8]

He was appointed executive officer (second-in-command) of the small warship HMS P. 31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P. 31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919. Mountbatten attended Christ's College, Cambridge, for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature (including John Milton and Lord Byron) in a programme designed to augment the education of junior officers which had been curtailed by the war. [9] [10] He was elected for a term to the Standing Committee of the Cambridge Union Society and was suspected of sympathy for the Labour Party, then emerging as a potential party of government for the first time. [11]

He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales, on a royal tour of Australia in her. [7] He was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920. [12] HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920. [13] Early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before, in northern England. [13] He transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan. [7] [14] Edward and Mountbatten formed a close friendship during the trip. [7] Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe. Fifty-two percent of the officers of his year had had to leave the Royal Navy by the end of 1923 although he was highly regarded by his superiors, it was rumoured that wealthy and well-connected officers were more likely to be retained. [15] He was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet in January 1923. [7]

Pursuing his interests in technological development and gadgetry, Mountbatten joined the Portsmouth Signals School in August 1924 and then went on briefly to study electronics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. [7] Mountbatten became a Member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), now the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). [16] He was posted to the battleship HMS Centurion in the Reserve Fleet in 1926 and became Assistant Fleet Wireless and Signals Officer of the Mediterranean Fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Roger Keyes in January 1927. [7] Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928, [17] he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor. [7] He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1931 and, having been promoted commander on 31 December 1932, [18] was posted to the battleship HMS Resolution. [7]

In 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS Daring. [7] His ship was a new destroyer, which he was to sail to Singapore and exchange for an older ship, HMS Wishart. [7] He successfully brought Wishart back to port in Malta and then attended the funeral of King George V in January 1936. [19] Mountbatten was appointed a personal naval aide-de-camp to King Edward VIII on 23 June 1936 [20] and, having joined the Naval Air Division of the Admiralty in July 1936, [21] he attended the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. [22] He was promoted captain on 30 June 1937 [23] and was then given command of the destroyer HMS Kelly in June 1939. [24]

In July 1939, Mountbatten was granted a patent (UK Number 508,956) for a system for maintaining a warship in a fixed position relative to another ship. [25]

Within the Admiralty, Mountbatten was called "The Master of Disaster" for his penchant of getting into messes. [26] [27]

Second World War Edit

When war broke out in September 1939, Mountbatten became Captain (D) (commander) of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla aboard HMS Kelly, which became famous for its exploits. [21] In late 1939 he brought the Duke of Windsor back from exile in France and in early May 1940 Mountbatten led a British convoy in through the fog to evacuate the Allied forces participating in the Namsos Campaign during the Norwegian Campaign. [24]

On the night of 9–10 May 1940, Kelly was torpedoed amidships by a German E-boat S 31 off the Dutch coast, and Mountbatten thereafter commanded the 5th Destroyer Flotilla from the destroyer HMS Javelin. [24] On 29 November 1940 the 5th Flotilla engaged three German destroyers off Lizard Point, Cornwall. Mountbatten turned to port to match a German course change. This was "a rather disastrous move as the directors swung off and lost target" [28] and it resulted in Javelin being struck by two torpedoes. He rejoined Kelly in December 1940, by which time the torpedo damage had been repaired. [24]

Kelly was sunk by German dive bombers on 23 May 1941 during the Battle of Crete [29] the incident serving as the basis for Noël Coward's film In Which We Serve. [30] Coward was a personal friend of Mountbatten and copied some of his speeches into the film. [29] Mountbatten was mentioned in despatches on 9 August 1940 [31] and 21 March 1941 [32] and awarded the Distinguished Service Order in January 1941. [33]

In August 1941, Mountbatten was appointed captain of the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious which lay in Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs following action at Malta in January. [29] During this period of relative inactivity, he paid a flying visit to Pearl Harbor, three months before the Japanese attack on it. Mountbatten, appalled at the US naval base's lack of preparedness, drawing on Japan's history of launching wars with surprise attacks as well as the successful British surprise attack at the Battle of Taranto which had effectively knocked Italy's fleet out of the war, and the sheer effectiveness of aircraft against warships, accurately predicted that the US would enter the war after a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. [29] [34]

Mountbatten was a favourite of Winston Churchill. [35] On 27 October 1941, Mountbatten replaced Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes as Chief of Combined Operations Headquarters and was promoted to commodore. [29]

His duties in this role included inventing new technical aids to assist with opposed landings. [21] Noteworthy technical achievements of Mountbatten and his staff include the construction of "PLUTO", an underwater oil pipeline to Normandy, an artificial Mulberry harbour constructed of concrete caissons and sunken ships, and the development of tank-landing ships. [21] Another project Mountbatten proposed to Churchill was Project Habakkuk. It was to be an unsinkable 600-metre aircraft carrier made from reinforced ice ("Pykrete"): Habakkuk was never carried out due to its enormous cost. [21]

As commander of Combined Operations, Mountbatten and his staff planned the highly successful Bruneval raid, which gained important information and captured part of a German Würzburg radar installation and one of the machine's technicians on 27 February 1942. It was Mountbatten who recognised that surprise and speed were essential to capture the radar, and saw that an airborne assault was the only viable method. [36]

On 18 March 1942, he was promoted to the acting rank of vice admiral and given the honorary ranks of lieutenant general [37] and air marshal to have the authority to carry out his duties in Combined Operations and, despite the misgivings of General Sir Alan Brooke, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, [38] Mountbatten was placed in the Chiefs of Staff Committee. [39] He was in large part responsible for the planning and organisation of the St Nazaire Raid on 28 March, which put out of action one of the most heavily defended docks in Nazi-occupied France until well after the war's end, the ramifications of which contributed to allied supremacy in the Battle of the Atlantic. After these two successes came the Dieppe Raid of 19 August 1942. He was central in the planning and promotion of the raid on the port of Dieppe. The raid was a marked failure, with casualties of almost 60%, the great majority of them Canadians. [29] Following the Dieppe Raid, Mountbatten became a controversial figure in Canada, with the Royal Canadian Legion distancing itself from him during his visits there during his later career. [40] His relations with Canadian veterans, who blamed him for the losses, "remained frosty" after the war. [41]

Mountbatten claimed that the lessons learned from the Dieppe Raid were necessary for planning the Normandy invasion on D-Day nearly two years later. However, military historians such as Major-General Julian Thompson, a former member of the Royal Marines, have written that these lessons should not have needed a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised. [42] Nevertheless, as a direct result of the failings of the Dieppe Raid, the British made several innovations, most notably Hobart's Funnies – specialised armoured vehicles which, in the course of the Normandy Landings, undoubtedly saved many lives on those three beachheads upon which Commonwealth soldiers were landing (Gold Beach, Juno Beach and Sword Beach). [43]

In August 1943, Churchill appointed Mountbatten the Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Command (SEAC) with promotion to acting full admiral. [29] His less practical ideas were sidelined by an experienced planning staff led by Lieutenant-Colonel James Allason, though some, such as a proposal to launch an amphibious assault near Rangoon, got as far as Churchill before being quashed. [44]

British interpreter Hugh Lunghi recounted an embarrassing episode during the Potsdam Conference when Mountbatten, desiring to receive an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, repeatedly attempted to impress Joseph Stalin with his former connections to the Russian imperial family. The attempt fell predictably flat, with Stalin dryly inquiring whether "it was some time ago that he had been there". Says Lunghi, "The meeting was embarrassing because Stalin was so unimpressed. He offered no invitation. Mountbatten left with his tail between his legs." [45]

During his time as Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre, his command oversaw the recapture of Burma from the Japanese by General Sir William Slim. [46] A personal high point was the receipt of the Japanese surrender in Singapore when British troops returned to the island to receive the formal surrender of Japanese forces in the region led by General Itagaki Seishiro on 12 September 1945, codenamed Operation Tiderace. [47] South East Asia Command was disbanded in May 1946 and Mountbatten returned home with the substantive rank of rear-admiral. [48] That year, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, as a victory title for war service. He was then in 1947 further created Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Baron Romsey, of Romsey in the County of Southampton. [49] [50]

Following the war, Mountbatten was known to have largely shunned the Japanese for the rest of his life out of respect for his men killed during the war and, as per his will, Japan was not invited to send diplomatic representatives to his funeral in 1979, though he did meet Emperor Hirohito during his state visit to Britain in 1971, reportedly at the urging of the Queen. [51]

Last Viceroy of India Edit

His experience in the region and in particular his perceived Labour sympathies at that time led to Clement Attlee advising King George VI to appoint Mountbatten Viceroy of India on 20 February 1947 [52] [53] charged with overseeing the transition of British India to independence no later than 30 June 1948. Mountbatten's instructions were to avoid partition and preserve a united India as a result of the transfer of power but authorised him to adapt to a changing situation in order to get Britain out promptly with minimal reputational damage. [54] [55] He arrived in India on 22 March 1947 by air, from London. In the evening, he was taken to his residence and, two days later, he took the Viceregal Oath. His arrival saw large-scale communal riots in Delhi, Bombay and Rawalpindi. Mountbatten concluded that the situation was too volatile to wait even a year before granting independence to India. Although his advisers favoured a gradual transfer of independence, Mountbatten decided the only way forward was a quick and orderly transfer of power before 1947 was out. In his view, any longer would mean civil war. [56] The Viceroy also hurried so he could return to his senior technical Navy courses. [57] [58]

Mountbatten was fond of Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru and his liberal outlook for the country. He felt differently about the Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah, but was aware of his power, stating "If it could be said that any single man held the future of India in the palm of his hand in 1947, that man was Mohammad Ali Jinnah." [58] During his meeting with Jinnah on 5 April 1947, [59] Mountbatten tried to persuade him of a united India, citing the difficult task of dividing the mixed states of Punjab and Bengal, but the Muslim leader was unyielding in his goal of establishing a separate Muslim state called Pakistan. [60]

Given the British government's recommendations to grant independence quickly, Mountbatten concluded that a united India was an unachievable goal and resigned himself to a plan for partition, creating the independent nations of India and Pakistan. [21] Mountbatten set a date for the transfer of power from the British to the Indians, arguing that a fixed timeline would convince Indians of his and the British government's sincerity in working towards a swift and efficient independence, excluding all possibilities of stalling the process. [61]

Among the Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi emphatically insisted on maintaining a united India and for a while successfully rallied people to this goal. During his meeting with Mountbatten, Gandhi asked Mountbatten to invite Jinnah to form a new central government, but Mountbatten never uttered a word of Gandhi's ideas to Jinnah. [63] When Mountbatten's timeline offered the prospect of attaining independence soon, sentiments took a different turn. Given Mountbatten's determination, Nehru and Patel's inability to deal with the Muslim League and, lastly, Jinnah's obstinacy, all Indian party leaders (except Gandhi) acquiesced to Jinnah's plan to divide India, [64] which in turn eased Mountbatten's task. Mountbatten also developed a strong relationship with the Indian princes, who ruled those portions of India not directly under British rule. His intervention was decisive in persuading the vast majority of them to see advantages in opting to join the Indian Union. [65] On one hand, the integration of the princely states can be viewed as one of the positive aspects of his legacy. [66] But on the other, the refusal of Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, and Junagadh to join one of the dominions led to future tension between Pakistan and India. [67]

Mountbatten brought forward the date of the partition from June 1948 to 15 August 1947. [68] The uncertainty of the borders caused Muslims and Hindus to move into the direction where they felt they would get the majority. Hindus and Muslims were thoroughly terrified, and the Muslim movement from the East was balanced by the similar movement of Hindus from the West. [69] A boundary committee chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe was charged with drawing boundaries for the new nations. With a mandate to leave as many Hindus and Sikhs in India and as many Muslims in Pakistan as possible, Radcliffe came up with a map that split the two countries along the Punjab and Bengal borders. This left 14 million people on the "wrong" side of the border, and very many of them fled to "safety" on the other side when the new lines were announced. [56]

When India and Pakistan attained independence at midnight of 14–15 August 1947, Mountbatten remained in New Delhi for 10 months, serving as the first governor-general of an independent India until June 1948. [70] On Mountbatten's advice, India took the issue of Kashmir to the newly formed United Nations in January 1948. This issue would become a lasting thorn in his legacy and one that is not resolved to this day. [71] Accounts differ on the future which Mountbatten desired for Kashmir. Pakistani accounts suggest that Mountbatten favoured the accession of Kashmir to India, citing his close relationship to Nehru. Mountbatten's own account says that he simply wanted the maharaja, Hari Singh, to make up his mind. The viceroy made several attempts to mediate between the Congress leaders, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Hari Singh on issues relating to the accession of Kashmir, though he was largely unsuccessful in resolving the conflict. [72] After the tribal invasion of Kashmir, it was on his suggestion that India moved to secure the accession of Kashmir from Hari Singh before sending in military forces for his defence. [73]

Notwithstanding the self-promotion of his own part in Indian independence – notably in the television series The Life and Times of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Mountbatten of Burma, produced by his son-in-law Lord Brabourne, and Freedom at Midnight by Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins (of which he was the main quoted source) – his record is seen as very mixed. One common view is that he hastened the process of independence unduly and recklessly, foreseeing vast disruption and loss of life and not wanting this to occur on his watch, but thereby actually helping it to occur (albeit in an indirect manner), especially in Punjab and Bengal. [74] John Kenneth Galbraith, the Canadian-American Harvard University economist, who advised governments of India during the 1950s and was an intimate of Nehru who served as the American ambassador from 1961 to 1963, was a particularly harsh critic of Mountbatten in this regard. [75]

The creation of Pakistan was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, among them Mountbatten. [76] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan. [77] Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan. [78] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged the creation of Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied, "Most probably". [79]

Career after India Edit

After India, Mountbatten served as commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron in the Mediterranean Fleet and, having been granted the substantive rank of vice-admiral on 22 June 1949, [80] he became Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet in April 1950. [70] He became Fourth Sea Lord at the Admiralty in June 1950. He then returned to the Mediterranean to serve as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and NATO Commander Allied Forces Mediterranean from June 1952. [70] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full admiral on 27 February 1953. [81] In March 1953, he was appointed Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen. [82]

Mountbatten served his final posting at the Admiralty as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from April 1955 to July 1959, the position which his father had held some forty years before. This was the first time in Royal Naval history that a father and son had both attained such high rank. [83] He was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 22 October 1956. [84]

In the Suez Crisis of 1956, Mountbatten strongly advised his old friend Prime Minister Anthony Eden against the Conservative government's plans to seize the Suez canal in conjunction with France and Israel. He argued that such a move would destabilize the Middle East, undermine the authority of the United Nations, divide the Commonwealth and diminish Britain's global standing. His advice was not taken. Eden insisted that Mountbatten not resign. Instead, he worked hard to prepare the Royal Navy for war with characteristic professionalism and thoroughness. [85] [86]

Military commanders did not understand the physics involved in a nuclear explosion. This became evident when Mountbatten had to be reassured that the fission reactions from the Bikini Atoll tests would not spread through the oceans and blow up the planet. [87] As Mountbatten became more familiar with this new form of weaponry, he increasingly grew opposed to its use in combat yet at the same time he realised the potential for nuclear energy, especially with regard to submarines. Mountbatten expressed his feelings towards the use of nuclear weapons in combat in his article "A Military Commander Surveys The Nuclear Arms Race", which was published shortly after his death in International Security in the Winter of 1979–1980. [88]

After leaving the Admiralty, Mountbatten took the position of Chief of the Defence Staff. [70] He served in this post for six years during which he was able to consolidate the three service departments of the military branch into a single Ministry of Defence. [89] Ian Jacob, co-author of the 1963 Report on the Central Organisation of Defence that served as the basis of these reforms, described Mountbatten as "universally mistrusted in spite of his great qualities". [90] On their election in October 1964, the Wilson ministry had to decide whether to renew his appointment the following July. The Defence Secretary, Denis Healey, interviewed the forty most senior officials in the Ministry of Defence only one, Sir Kenneth Strong, a personal friend of Mountbatten, recommended his reappointment. [90] "When I told Dickie of my decision not to reappoint him," recalls Healey, "he slapped his thigh and roared with delight but his eyes told a different story." [90]

Mountbatten was appointed colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick in Waiting on 29 January 1965 [91] and Life Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marines the same year. [92] He was Governor of the Isle of Wight from 20 July 1965 [93] and then the first Lord Lieutenant of the Isle of Wight from 1 April 1974. [94]

In 1969, Mountbatten tried unsuccessfully to persuade his cousin, the Spanish pretender Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, to ease the eventual accession of his son, Juan Carlos, to the Spanish throne by signing a declaration of abdication while in exile. [96] The next year Mountbatten attended an official White House dinner during which he took the opportunity to have a 20-minute conversation with Richard Nixon and Secretary of State William P. Rogers, about which he later wrote, "I was able to talk to the President a bit about both Tino [Constantine II of Greece] and Juanito [Juan Carlos of Spain] to try and put over their respective points of view about Greece and Spain, and how I felt the US could help them." [96] In January 1971, Nixon hosted Juan Carlos and his wife Sofia (sister of the exiled King Constantine) during a visit to Washington and later that year The Washington Post published an article alleging that Nixon's administration was seeking to persuade Franco to retire in favour of the young Bourbon prince. [96]

From 1967 until 1978, Mountbatten was president of the United World Colleges Organisation, then represented by a single college: that of Atlantic College in South Wales. Mountbatten supported the United World Colleges and encouraged heads of state, politicians and personalities throughout the world to share his interest. Under his presidency and personal involvement, the United World College of South East Asia was established in Singapore in 1971, followed by the United World College of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1974. In 1978, Mountbatten passed the presidency of the college to his great-nephew, the Prince of Wales. [97]

Mountbatten also helped to launch the International Baccalaureate in 1971 he presented the first IB diplomas in the Greek Theatre of the International School of Geneva, Switzerland. [98] [99] [100]

In 1975 he finally visited the Soviet Union, leading the delegation from UK as personal representative of Queen Elizabeth II at the celebrations to mark the 30th anniversary of Victory Day in World War II in Moscow. [101]

Alleged plots against Harold Wilson Edit

Peter Wright, in his 1987 book Spycatcher, claimed that in May 1968 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron Cecil King, and the government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Solly Zuckerman. Wright alleged that "up to thirty" MI5 officers had joined a secret campaign to undermine the crisis-stricken Labour government of Harold Wilson and that King was an MI5 agent. In the meeting, King allegedly urged Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman pointed out that it was "rank treachery" and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act. [102] In contrast, Andrew Lownie has suggested that it took the intervention of the Queen to dissuade him from plotting against Wilson. [103]

In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–1976). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5. [104]

The first official history of MI5, The Defence of the Realm (2009), implied that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt, who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5 . a lot of them like Peter Wright who were right-wing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government." [105]

Marriage Edit

Mountbatten was married on 18 July 1922 to Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfred William Ashley, later 1st Baron Mount Temple, himself a grandson of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. She was the favourite granddaughter of the Edwardian magnate Sir Ernest Cassel and the principal heir to his fortune. The couple spent heavily on households, luxuries and entertainment. [7] There followed a honeymoon tour of European royal courts and America which included a visit to Niagara Falls (because "all honeymooners went there"). [3]

Mountbatten admitted: "Edwina and I spent all our married lives getting into other people's beds." [106] He maintained an affair for several years with Yola Letellier, [107] the wife of Henri Letellier, publisher of Le Journal and mayor of Deauville (1925–28). [108] Yola Letellier's life story was the inspiration for Colette's novel Gigi. [107]

After Edwina died in 1960, Mountbatten was involved in relationships with young women, according to his daughter Patricia, his secretary John Barratt, his valet Bill Evans and William Stadiem, an employee of Madame Claude. [109]

Sexuality Edit

Ron Perks, Mountbatten's driver in Malta in 1948, alleged that he used to visit the Red House, a gay brothel in Rabat. [110] Andrew Lownie, a fellow of the Royal Historical Society, wrote that the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) maintained files regarding Mountbatten's alleged homosexuality. [111] Lownie also interviewed several young men who claimed to have been in a relationship with Mountbatten. John Barratt, Mountbatten's personal and private secretary for 20 years, [112] has denied Mountbatten was a homosexual, claiming it would be impossible for such a fact to be hidden from him. [109]

Allegations of sexual abuse Edit

The FBI file on Mountbatten, begun after he took on the role of Supreme Allied Commander in Southeast Asia in 1944, contains a claim by American author Elizabeth Wharton Drexel that Mountbatten had "a perversion for young boys". [111] [113] Norman Nield, Mountbatten's driver from 1942 to 1943, told the tabloid New Zealand Truth that he transported young boys aged 8 to 12 and was paid to keep quiet. Robin Bryans had also claimed to the Irish magazine Now that he and Anthony Blunt, along with others, were part of a ring that engaged in homosexual orgies and procured boys in their first year at public schools such as the Portora Royal School in Enniskillen. Former residents of the Kincora Boys' Home in Belfast have asserted that they were trafficked to Mountbatten at his residence in Mullaghmore, County Sligo. [114] [115] [116] These claims were dismissed by the Historical Institution Abuse (HIA) Inquiry. [117] [109] [118] The HIA stated that the article making the original allegations "did not give any basis for the assertions that any of these people [Mountbatten and others] were connected with Kincora". [117]

Daughter as heir Edit

Lord and Lady Mountbatten had two daughters: Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma (14 February 1924 – 13 June 2017), [119] sometime lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth II, and Lady Pamela Hicks (born 19 April 1929), who accompanied them to India in 1947–1948 and was also sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen. [1]

Since Mountbatten had no sons when he was created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton on 27 August 1946 [120] and then Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Baron Romsey, in the County of Southampton on 28 October 1947, [121] the Letters Patent were drafted such that in the event he left no sons or issue in the male line, the titles could pass to his daughters, in order of seniority of birth, and to their male heirs respectively. [50]

Leisure interests Edit

Like many members of the royal family, Mountbatten was an aficionado of polo. He received US patent 1,993,334 in 1931 for a polo stick. [122] Mountbatten introduced the sport to the Royal Navy in the 1920s and wrote a book on the subject. [3] He also served as Commodore of Emsworth Sailing Club in Hampshire from 1931. [123] He was a long-serving Patron of the Society for Nautical Research (1951–1979). [124]

Mentorship of the Prince of Wales Edit

Mountbatten was a strong influence in the upbringing of his grand-nephew, Charles, Prince of Wales, and later as a mentor – "Honorary Grandfather" and "Honorary Grandson", they fondly called each other according to the Jonathan Dimbleby biography of the Prince – though according to both the Ziegler biography of Mountbatten and the Dimbleby biography of the Prince, the results may have been mixed. He from time to time strongly upbraided the Prince for showing tendencies towards the idle pleasure-seeking dilettantism of his predecessor as Prince of Wales, King Edward VIII, whom Mountbatten had known well in their youth. Yet he also encouraged the Prince to enjoy the bachelor life while he could, and then to marry a young and inexperienced girl so as to ensure a stable married life. [125]

Mountbatten's qualification for offering advice to this particular heir to the throne was unique it was he who had arranged the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to Dartmouth Royal Naval College on 22 July 1939, taking care to include the young Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret in the invitation, but assigning his nephew, Cadet Prince Philip of Greece, to keep them amused while their parents toured the facility. This was the first recorded meeting of Charles's future parents. [126] But a few months later, Mountbatten's efforts nearly came to naught when he received a letter from his sister Alice in Athens informing him that Philip was visiting her and had agreed to repatriate permanently to Greece. Within days, Philip received a command from his cousin and sovereign, King George II of Greece, to resume his naval career in Britain which, though given without explanation, the young prince obeyed. [127]

In 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to his granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull. [128] It was about this time he also recommended that the 25-year-old prince get on with "sowing some wild oats". [128] Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother (who was also his godmother), Lady Brabourne, about his interest. Her answer was supportive, but advised him that she thought her daughter still rather young to be courted. [129]

In February 1975, Charles visited New Delhi to play polo and was shown around Rashtrapati Bhavan, the former Viceroy's House, by Mountbatten. [130]

Four years later, Mountbatten secured an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his planned 1980 tour of India. [129] Their fathers promptly objected. Prince Philip thought that the Indian public's reception would more likely reflect response to the uncle than to the nephew. Lord Brabourne counselled that the intense scrutiny of the press would be more likely to drive Mountbatten's godson and granddaughter apart than together. [129]

Charles was rescheduled to tour India alone, but Mountbatten did not live to the planned date of departure. When Charles finally did propose marriage to Amanda later in 1979, the circumstances were changed and she refused him. [129]

On 27 April 1977, shortly before his 77th birthday, Mountbatten became the first member of the Royal Family to appear on the TV guest show This Is Your Life. [131]

Assassination Edit

Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle, on the Mullaghmore Peninsula in County Sligo, in the north-west of Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members. [132] [133] In 1978, the IRA had allegedly attempted to shoot Mountbatten as he was aboard his boat, but poor weather had prevented the sniper taking his shot. [134]

On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, Shadow V, which had been moored in the harbour at Mullaghmore. [133] IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten and his party had taken the boat just a few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was destroyed by the force of the blast and Mountbatten's legs were almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being brought to shore. [133] [135] [136]

Also aboard the boat were his elder daughter Patricia, Lady Brabourne her husband Lord Brabourne their twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull Lord Brabourne's mother Doreen, Dowager Lady Brabourne and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from Enniskillen in County Fermanagh. [137] Nicholas (aged 14) and Paul (aged 15) were killed by the blast and the others were seriously injured. [138] Doreen, Dowager Lady Brabourne (aged 83), died from her injuries the following day. [139]

The attack triggered outrage and condemnation around the world. [140] The Queen received messages of condolence from leaders including American President Jimmy Carter and Pope John Paul II. [141] Carter expressed his "profound sadness" at the death. [142]

His death leaves a gap that can never be filled. The British people give thanks for his life and grieve at his passing. [143]

George Colley, the Tánaiste (Deputy head of government) of the Republic of Ireland, said:

No effort will be spared to bring those responsible to justice. It is understood that subversives have claimed responsibility for the explosion. Assuming that police investigations substantiate the claim, I know that the Irish people will join me in condemning this heartless and terrible outrage. [143]

The IRA issued a statement afterward, saying:

The IRA claim responsibility for the execution of Lord Louis Mountbatten. This operation is one of the discriminate ways we can bring to the attention of the English people the continuing occupation of our country. . The death of Mountbatten and the tributes paid to him will be seen in sharp contrast to the apathy of the British Government and the English people to the deaths of over three hundred British soldiers, and the deaths of Irish men, women, and children at the hands of their forces. [132] [144]

Six weeks later, [145] Sinn Féin vice-president Gerry Adams said of Mountbatten's death:

The IRA gave clear reasons for the execution. I think it is unfortunate that anyone has to be killed, but the furor created by Mountbatten's death showed up the hypocritical attitude of the media establishment. As a member of the House of Lords, Mountbatten was an emotional figure in both British and Irish politics. What the IRA did to him is what Mountbatten had been doing all his life to other people and with his war record I don't think he could have objected to dying in what was clearly a war situation. He knew the danger involved in coming to this country. In my opinion, the IRA achieved its objective: people started paying attention to what was happening in Ireland. [145]

Adams later said in an interview, "I stand over what I said then. I'm not one of those people that engages in revisionism. Thankfully the war is over." [146]

On the day of the bombing, the IRA also ambushed and killed eighteen British soldiers at the gates of Narrow Water Castle, just outside Warrenpoint, in County Down in Northern Ireland, sixteen of them from the Parachute Regiment, in what became known as the Warrenpoint ambush. [147] It was the deadliest attack on the British Army during the Troubles. [133]

Funeral Edit

On 5 September 1979 Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by the Queen, the royal family and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of people, the funeral procession, which started at Wellington Barracks, included representatives of all three British Armed Services, and military contingents from Burma, India, the United States (represented by 70 sailors of the U.S. Navy and 50 U.S. Marines [148] ), France (represented by the French Navy) and Canada. His coffin was drawn on a gun carriage by 118 Royal Navy ratings. [149] [150] During the televised service, the Prince of Wales read the lesson from Psalm 107. [149] In an address, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, highlighted his various achievements and his "lifelong devotion to the Royal Navy". [151] After the public ceremonies, which he had planned himself, Mountbatten was buried in Romsey Abbey. [152] [153] As part of the funeral arrangements, his body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley. [154]

Aftermath Edit

Two hours before the bomb detonated, Thomas McMahon had been arrested at a Garda checkpoint between Longford and Granard on suspicion of driving a stolen vehicle. He was tried for the assassinations in Ireland and convicted on 23 November 1979 based on forensic evidence supplied by James O'Donovan that showed flecks of paint from the boat and traces of nitroglycerine on his clothes. [155] He was released in 1998 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement. [133] [156]

On hearing of Mountbatten's death, the then Master of the Queen's Music, Malcolm Williamson, wrote the Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma for violin and string orchestra. The 11-minute work was given its first performance on 5 May 1980 by the Scottish Baroque Ensemble, conducted by Leonard Friedman. [157]

Mountbatten's faults, according to his biographer Philip Ziegler, like everything else about him, "were on the grandest scale. His vanity though child-like, was monstrous, his ambition unbridled. He sought to rewrite history with cavalier indifference to the facts to magnify his own achievements." [158] However, Ziegler concludes that Mountbatten's virtues outweighed his defects: [159]

He was generous and loyal. He was warm-hearted, predisposed to like everyone he met, quick-tempered but never bearing grudges. His tolerance was extraordinary his readiness to respect and listen to the views of others was remarkable throughout his life.

Ziegler argues he was truly a great man, although not profound or original. [159]

What he could do with superlative aplomb was to identify the object at which he was aiming, and force it through to its conclusion. A powerful, analytic mind of crystalline clarity, a superabundance of energy, great persuasive powers, endless resilience in the face of setback or disaster rendered him the most formidable of operators. He was infinitely resourceful, quick in his reactions, always ready to cut his losses and start again. He was an executor of policy rather than an initiator but whatever the policy, he espoused it with such energy and enthusiasm, made it so completely his own, that it became identified with him and, in the eyes of the outside world as well as his own, his creation.

Others were not so conflicted. Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer, the former Chief of the Imperial General Staff, once told him, "You are so crooked, Dickie, that if you swallowed a nail, you would shit a corkscrew". [160]

Mountbatten's most controversial legacy came in his support for the burgeoning nationalist movements which grew up in the shadow of Japanese occupation. His priority was to maintain practical, stable government, but driving him was an idealism in which he believed every people should be allowed to control their own destiny. Critics said he was too ready to overlook their faults, and especially their subordination to communist control. Ziegler says that in Malaya, where the main resistance to the Japanese came from Chinese who were under considerable communist influence, "Mountbatten proved to have been naïve in his assessment. He erred, however, not because he was 'soft on Communism'. but from an over-readiness to assume the best of those with whom he had dealings." Furthermore, Ziegler argues, he was following a practical policy based on the assumption that it would take a long and bloody struggle to drive the Japanese out, and he needed the support of all the anti-Japanese elements, most of which were either nationalists or communists. [161]

Mountbatten took pride in enhancing intercultural understanding and in 1984, with his elder daughter as the patron, the Mountbatten Institute was developed to allow young adults the opportunity to enhance their intercultural appreciation and experience by spending time abroad. [162] The IET annually awards the Mountbatten Medal for an outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the promotion of electronics or information technology and their application. [16]

Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in his memory. [163] The Mountbatten estate in Singapore and Mountbatten MRT station were named after him. [164]

He was appointed personal aide-de-camp by Edward VIII, George VI [181] and Elizabeth II, and therefore bore the unusual distinction of being allowed to wear three royal cyphers on his shoulder straps. [182] [183]

WOOD, William (1611-78), of Wapping Wall, Mdx.

Although Wood was born in an inland village, he was already a shipwright at the time of his marriage, and was later recommended by Peter Pett as a supplier of masts to the Commonwealth navy. During the Interregnum he was in partnership with John Wright as contractor and shipowner. With the help of Sir William Batten he acquired a virtual monopoly in the early years of the Restoration, so that he was able to ‘set and command his own price’. Although Samuel Pepys succeeded in wresting at least one contract from him, to the benefit of Sir William Warren, he continued to prosper, and was described as ‘very rich’ on the occasion of his son’s marriage in 1666. In 1670 he entered into partnership with (Sir) Matthew Andrews to build an East Indiaman at Wivenhoe.4

Wood stood for Dunwich at a by-election early in 1671 against Admiral Sir Thomas Allin. When it was objected that he was a stranger in Dunwich his supporters claimed that he had been a freeman since September 1658 and ‘was intimately known to most of the freemen of Dunwich as having done eminent service in managing some of the affairs of the said corporation’. Besides serving ‘three several years’ master of the corporation of shipwrights’, he was also a merchant

His election was disputed, but he was allowed to sit on 25 Jan. on the merits of the return, and became a moderately active Member of the Cavalier Parliament. He was appointed to 28 committees, most on economic subjects, such as the preservation of naval stores (14 Apr. 1671), and those instructed in 1673 to inquire into the decay of the Muscovy, Eastland and Greenland trades and to give local authorities powers to prevent the spread of fire. On 19 Apr. 1675 during a debate on a motion to recall British subjects in the service of the French King, he desired

The Admiralty Court rules on behalf of Trinity House and compulsory pilotage on the Thames

Trinity House Court Minute:

“None take on himself to be Master or Pilot of any ship or vessel to go forth or return to the Thames without certificate by the Trinity House. From my Chamber in the Doctors Commons– Sir Henry Marten to the Master, etc.”

Sir Henry Marten was a judge of the Admiralty Court and a member of the Court of High Commission.

Greenwich Hospital from the north bank of the Thames, Canaletto, 1750-52 National Maritime Museum, London

Samuel Pepys records the election of the new Master

“To the Trinity House where the Brethren have been at Deptford choosing a new Master which is Sir J Minnes* notwithstanding Sir W Batten did contend highly for it at which I am not a little pleased, because of his proud lady.”

*Admiral Sir John Mennes Kt was elected Master I hope Pepys was not too dismayed that a year later Admiral Sir William Batten Kt was elected Master!

Mountbatten family

The Mountbatten family is a British dynasty that originated as an English branch of the German princely Battenberg family. The name was adopted on 14 July 1917, just three days before the British royal family had its name changed to Windsor, by members of the Battenberg family residing in the United Kingdom, due to rising anti-German sentiment amongst the British public during World War I. The name is a direct Anglicisation of the German Battenberg (literally 'Batten Mountain'), a small town in Hesse. The title of count of Battenberg, later prince of Battenberg, was granted to a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, itself a cadet branch of the House of Hesse, in the mid 19th century.

The family now includes the Marquesses of Milford Haven (and formerly the Marquesses of Carisbrooke), as well as the Earls Mountbatten of Burma. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, the late consort of Queen Elizabeth II, adopted the surname of Mountbatten from his mother's family in 1947, although he was a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg by patrilineal descent. Lady Louise Mountbatten became Queen Consort of Sweden, after having married Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden.


The Mountbatten family are a branch of the German house of Battenberg. The Battenberg family was a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, rulers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in Germany. The first member of the House of Battenberg was Julia Hauke, whose brother-in-law Grand Duke Louis III of Hesse created her Countess of Battenberg with the style Illustrious Highness in 1851, on the occasion of her morganatic marriage to Grand Duke Louis' brother Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine. Julia was elevated in her title to Princess of Battenberg with the style Serene Highness (HSH) in 1858. [1]

Two of Alexander and Julia's sons, Prince Henry of Battenberg and Prince Louis of Battenberg, became associated with the British Royal Family. Prince Henry married The Princess Beatrice, the youngest daughter of Queen Victoria. Prince Louis married Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, and became the First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy. Due to anti-German feelings prevalent in Britain during World War I, Prince Louis, his children, and his nephews (the living sons of Prince Henry), renounced their German titles and changed their name to the more English sounding Mountbatten. (They rejected an alternative translation, "Battenhill".) [2] Their cousin, George V compensated the princes with British peerages. Prince Louis became the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, while Prince Alexander, Prince Henry's eldest son, became the 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke. [1] [3]


Marquesses of Milford Haven

The marquessate of Milford Haven was created in 1917 for Prince Louis of Battenberg, the former First Sea Lord, and a relation to the British Royal family. He was at the same time made Earl of Medina and Viscount Alderney, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. [3] Princess Alice of Battenberg never took the name Mountbatten as she married Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark in 1903 her son, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, took the name upon becoming a naturalised British citizen. [4]

    (1854–1921) m. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
    • Princess Alice of Battenberg (1885–1969) m. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, son of King George I of Greece
      • Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark (1905–1981) m. Gottfried, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
      • Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark (1906–1969) m. Berthold, Margrave of Baden
      • Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark (1911–1937) m. Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse
      • Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark (1914–2001) m. Prince Christoph of Hesse d. 1943, m. Prince George William of Hanover (1921–2021), m. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
      • Lady Tatiana Mountbatten (1917–1988) (1919–1970) m. Romaine Dahlgren Pierce div. 1954, m. Janet Mercedes Bryce
          (b. 1961) m. Sarah Georgina Walker div. 1996, m. Clare Steel
            (b. 1990)
      • Henry Mountbatten, Earl of Medina (b. 1991)
        • Ella Mountbatten (b. 1996)
        • Alexandra Mountbatten (b. 1998)
        • Louise Mountbatten (b. 2002)
          (1924–2017) m. John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne (b. 1929) m. David Nightingale Hicks
    • The heir apparent to the marquessate is the present holder's son Henry Mountbatten, Earl of Medina (b. 1991)

      The 1st Marquess's youngest daughter, Lady Louise Mountbatten, married the crown prince of Sweden in 1923. On his accession in 1950 as Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden, Louise became Queen consort of Sweden. [5] [6]

      Earls Mountbatten of Burma

      Earl Mountbatten of Burma is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1947 for Rear Admiral Louis Mountbatten, 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, youngest son of the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven and the last Viceroy of India. The letters patent creating the title specified the following special remainder to his daughters. The subsidiary titles of the Earldom are Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, created 1946, and Baron Romsey, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, created in 1947. Both of these titles, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, have the same special remainder as the Earldom. [7]

        (1900–1979) m. Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfrid Ashley, 1st Baron Mount Temple and great-granddaughter of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury
          (1924–2017) m. John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne
            (b. 1947) m. Penelope Eastwood
            • Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne (b. 1981)
            • Lady Alexandra Hooper (b. 1982) m. Thomas Hooper
            • The Hon. Leonora Knatchbull (1986–1991)
            • Kelly Knatchbull (b. 1988)
            • Savannah Knatchbull (b. 2001)
            • Daisy Knatchbull (b. 1992)
            • Frederick Knatchbull (b. 2003)
            • John Knatchbull (b. 2004)
            • Amber Knatchbull (b. 2000)
            • Milo Knatchbull (b. 2001)
            • Ludovic Knatchbull (b. 2003)
            • Isla Knatchbull (b. 2005)
            • Wilhelmina Knatchbull (b. 2008)
            • Edwina Brudenell (b. 1961) m. Jeremy Brudenell (b. 1963) m. Marina Allegra Federica Silvia Tondato, div. 2009, m. Katalina Sharkey de Solis
              • Angelica Hicks (b. 1992)
              • Ambrosia Hicks (b. 1997)
              • Caspian Hicks (b. 2018)
              • Horatio Hicks (b. 2019)

              The heir apparent to the earldom is the present holder's son, Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne (born 1981).

              Marquess of Carisbrooke

              Marquess of Carisbrooke was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1917 for Prince Alexander of Battenberg, eldest son of Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom and Prince Henry of Battenberg. He was made Viscount Launceston, in the County of Cornwall, and Earl of Berkhampsted at the same time, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. [3] The titles became extinct upon Lord Carisbrooke's death in 1960, as he had no sons.

                (1886–1960) m. Lady Irene Denison, daughter of William Denison, 2nd Earl of Londesborough
                  (1920–1982) m. Captain Hamilton Joseph Keyes O'Malley, div. 1946, m. Michael Neely Bryan, div. 1957, m. William Alexander Kemp

                Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

                Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the son of Princess Alice of Battenberg and grandson of the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, took the name Mountbatten when he became a naturalised British subject. Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten married Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George VI of the United Kingdom, on 20 November 1947. In 1952, on the accession of his wife as Queen Elizabeth II, there was some dispute regarding the dynasty to which descendants of Elizabeth and Phillip would belong. Queen Mary (the new Queen's grandmother) expressed to Prime Minister Winston Churchill her aversion to the idea of the House of Mountbatten succeeding the House of Windsor as the royal dynasty. [4] Winston Churchill raised the matter in Parliament where it was decided that the name of the Royal House would remain Windsor, as decreed in perpetuity by Queen Mary's husband, King George V. [8]

                  (1921–2021) m. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
                    (b. 1948) m. Lady Diana Spencer, div. 1996, m. Camilla Parker Bowles
                      (b. 1982) m. Catherine Middleton
                        (b. 2013) (b. 2015) (b. 2018)
                        (b. 2019) (b. 2021)
                        (b. 1988) m. Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi (b. 1990) m. Jack Brooksbank
                        (b. 2003) (b. 2007)

                      Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname of some of the descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh under an Order in Council issued in 1960, which has not been applied consistently. While the Order specifically applies the surname "Mountbatten-Windsor" to Elizabeth's male-line descendants not holding Royal styles and titles, "Mountbatten-Windsor" has been formally used by some of her descendants who do hold Royal styles. The surname was first officially used by Princess Anne in 1973, in the wedding register for her marriage to Mark Phillips. [9] Prince William and his wife Catherine used the names "Monsieur et Madame Mountbatten-Windsor" when filing a French lawsuit against the French magazine Closer. [10] [11] Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex and his wife Meghan have named their children Archie Mountbatten-Windsor and Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor. [12] [13]

                      Mountbatten-Windsor differs from the official name of the British royal family or royal house, which remains Windsor. The adoption of the Mountbatten-Windsor surname applies only to members of the royal family who are descended from Elizabeth, and not, for example, to her cousins, or descendants of her sister, Princess Margaret. [9]


                      The city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in memory of the 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. A Royal Canadian Sea Cadets corps, RCSCC No. 134 Admiral Mountbatten, was named after him in 1946. [14] A 9 ft 5 in (2.9 m) bronze statue by Franta Belsky of Lord Mountbatten of Burma was erected in 1983 outside the Foreign Office, overlooking Horse Guards Parade. The earl is dressed in the uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet. [15]

                      The Mountbatten Institute (formerly known as the Mountbatten Internship Programme), an organization based in New York and London dedicated to fostering work experience and cultural exchange by placing international graduate students abroad to earn postgraduate and degrees was set up by his eldest daughter, Patricia, 2nd Countess Mountbatten. It was named in honour of the countess's father, the 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. [16]

                      Despite the family's well-known connections with the Royal Navy, the Mount Batten Peninsula , overlooking the Royal Naval Base of Devonport, England, is not named after them but after Sir William Batten, a 17th-century Surveyor of the Navy.

                      Coats of arms

                      Family tree

                      Genealogical Table of the Battenberg, Mountbatten and Mountbatten-Windsor Family


                      Posted by H. Altenburg on Thursday 28th of May 2020 06:15

                      To Peter Harman, relatives and descendants (?) of Sir John Harman and others interested in this great admiral: I am presently writing on Sir John and would appreciate any contact if you were willing to share historic or anecdotal information or relevant leads.
                      Thank you. H Altenburg (Prof. ret.), USA, [email protected]

                      Posted by Peter Harman on Monday 2nd of July 2018 01:55

                      Posted by Peter Harman on Monday 2nd of July 2018 01:54

                      Posted by Brian on Wednesday 20th of January 2016 02:16

                      London Gazette 1667 Falmouth Sept. 25: The 23rd inst. arrived here the Mary of Swansea --- she came thence two months since and speaks much of the good conduct of Sir John Harman, confirming the success of his squadron and the entire defeat of the whole French Fleet.

                      Watch the video: Admiral Sir William Goodenough 1927 (January 2022).