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A Roman Beaker for Merueifa



Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection

The beaker is made of colorless glass with a slight greenish tint and has a hint of iridescence. It was blown with ribs applied to the parison, inflated further and a thin trail applied below rim. The 15 ribs are straight with a very slight swirl.

(72R) ROMAN GLASS BEAKER

Reference: Glaser Der Antike, Sammlung Erwin Opperlander, 1974 #650, Whitehouse, Roman Glass in the Corning Museum, Vol 2, 2001 #657 (Swirled ribs), Ancient Glass, Charles Ede Limited, 2006 #24 (swirled ribs)

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The Author

This site is to share the beauty of glass with whomever is interested in it. This is not a commercial site. The middle post is: Examples from The Allaire Collection of Glass and other glass collections. The Right Side (called Pages) are: Notes of interest on Glass, Private Collections and Museum Collections. To be notified of our new posts click on “Follow” at the bottom of the screen. We would like to have other glass collectors to share their collections on this blog. If you are interested, please contact us by a comment on the bottom of every screen and attach your e-mail.


Ancient Mediterranean Collections

This online exhibit presents highlights of ASM’s collection of some 520 ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman objects. The vast majority of these were acquired in the early days of the museum’s history from the 1890s to the 1930s through exchange, donation, and less commonly, by purchase. Each has an individual story to tell—where it was made, where it was found, its historical importance, or of its collector.

Research for this display was conducted by Dr. Irene Bald Romano, ASM curator of Mediterranean archaeology, with UA graduate students Christopher C. Baker, Chantel N. Osborne, Emilio Rodriguez-Alvarez, Jessica Sue Wiles, as well as other students and UA colleagues. Study of these collections is ongoing.

More on Dr. Romano's research on ASM's ancient Mediterranean collections can be found here and in this video.
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These wedge-shaped symbols, known as cuneiform (Latin: cuneus = wedge), represent one of the earliest forms of writing. The language on this clay tablet is ancient Sumerian, and it records a court proceeding concerning the non-delivery of barley to the threshing floor of the ruler’s palace. It is the oldest legal text in Arizona.

The technically sophisticated black figure technique of decorating Greek pottery was perfected in the region of Attica, in and around Athens, in the 6th century BCE. This very large drinking cup is one of the many decorated by a group of painters known as the CHC (CHariot Courting) Group, named for scenes such as this with a four-horse chariot team wheeling around, flanked by seated sphinxes and Amazons wearing tall, pointed caps.

This rare, wooden slab-style Egyptian senet board was given to the Arizona State Museum in 1922 by Lily S. Place, an American who lived in Cairo in the 1910s and 1920s and purchased ancient Egyptian objects from dealers and in the bazaars it has no ancient provenience. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, a team of UA and other scholars have provided a reading and interpretation of the incised hieroglyphs, established a radiocarbon date for the game board from 980 to 838 BCE, identified the wood as Abies (fir), probably Abies cilicica, demonstrated that the board was fashioned from freshly-cut wood, and identified the inlay substance as a green copper-wax pigment. Read much more about this piece here.

After the development of glassblowing in the 1st century BCE, the technique spread rapidly from its origins in the Syro-Palestinian region into neighboring areas, and eventually across the Roman world. Many small vessels were made to hold precious oils and perfumes, powders, cosmetics, and medicinal substances. The term unguentarium (unguent holder) is generally used for the smallest of these they were commonly deposited in graves throughout the Roman period. The striking iridescence on many examples of Roman glass is a byproduct of the breakdown of the vessel’s chemical components (silica and soda).

Images of a city’s patron god or goddess, such as Zeus, Apollo, and Athena, are usually portrayed on ancient coins. After the establishment of monarchies at the end of the Classical period these images of divinities were replaced by depictions of rulers, starting with Alexander the Great (upper right). The silver drachm, equivalent to six oboloi, was the basic unit in Greek coinage, the average of two days’ pay of a work in Classical Greece. Each tetradrachm (4 drachmai or 24 oboloi) was the average equivalent of eight days’ salary, enough to maintain an average household. Discrepancies in the weight and the details of the obverse and reverse of some of these coins indicate that they are possible modern copies.

The seated figure of the goddess Isis holds her young son Horus (Greek and Roman Harpocrates) in her lap in a nursing pose. Consort of the underworld deity Osiris, Isis found great popularity among Greeks and Romans who spread her cult throughout the Mediterranean. The imposing figure of the lioness represents the goddess Sekhmet, who was associated with pestilence, warfare, and vengeance. She was also the daughter of the sun deity Re, which explains the solar disk on her head. Votive statuettes such as these would have been offered in sanctuaries by devotees who hoped to curry favor with a certain god or goddess. In antiquity, these types of statuettes would have been cast in the lost wax method, but as these are very heavy and solid cast they are likely to be modern copies.

The portrait is in Egyptian style, i.e., in the mode of an Egyptian pharaoh wearing the nemes with uraeus, and can probably be dated to the late fourth or third centuries BCE. A lack of inscriptions and solid archaeological contexts for the majority of small Ptolemaic portraits has made assessing their function difficult. In the article linked below, the hypotheses regarding the uses of this category of images in the ideological program of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt are briefly examined, and the suggestion is made that they may have been manufactured as patronage gifts for elite members of Egyptian society, including the priestly class and other temple officials, from whom loyal support was critical to the ruling Ptolemies. Read more about this Ptolemaic royal portrait here.

A fibula is a type of ancient clothing fastener, often found in burial contexts. In Etruscan/Italic burials such as those in the necropolis of Caverzano in the Veneto region of Italy, specific shapes can be associated with the gender of the deceased. For example, these fibulae of serpentine shape are associated with male burials. The loop of pin A-2380 (left) holds a corroded amber bead. Amber in the ancient Etruscan world originated in the Baltic region and was brought into Italy through trade networks in central Europe.


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Never Use Naples Yellow

Yet another dangerous pigment where lead is present is lead antimonate yellow, known also as Naples yellow. The pigment has the following chemical formula, Pb3(SbO4)2 and it is a salt of two highly toxic metals, lead and antimony, and is therefore extremely poisonous.

Naples Yellow was initially used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia as a yellow colorant and opacifier in glasses and glazes.

Unlike some other pigments, lead antimonite yellow was lost and re-discovered several times throughout history, reaching its height of popularity in European art between 1750 and 1850 and, during this time, it was the dominant yellow pigment used by landscape artists. After this period, lead antimonate yellow was slowly replaced first by chrome yellow and then by cadmium yellow.

Roman glass beaker from second half of the 4th century. The yellow pigment is derived from lead antimonate. (MatthiasKabel / CC BY-SA 4.0 )


Barbotine ware of Britannia and European Roman provinces

The term barbotine refers to a ceramic technique in which decorative elements are either piped onto an object similar to decorating a cake, or molded then applied to a pottery vessel.

With Type A barbotine, the potter uses a quill, horn, or other kind of nozzle to apply a soft slip mixture to a ceramic piece. Today the technique is known as slip-trailing. The slip would normally be in a contrasting color to the rest of the vessel, and forms a pattern, or inscription, that is slightly raised above the main surface. Barbotine designs have been found on pottery from ancient Egypt, the Middle Minoan period on Crete, and embellishing Roman vessels, where the color may be the same as the rest of the vessel rather than contrasting.

With type B barbotine, the sllip or barbotine is cast in molds to form three-dimensional decorative sections which, when dried out, are added to the main vessel. Typically, these might be flowers, fruit, or animals. Type B barbotine was particularly popular in Britannia and the Roman provinces of Europe because of the consistency of the local clay. These vessels were probably filled with foods or liquids and given either as gifts to an elaborate burial or as offerings to a god's shrine.


Thracian funerary silverware

"From the mid-first millennium, such objects as ceremonial helmets, armor, cups, and ornamental gear for horses—worked from silver and sometimes gilded—have been discovered in graves and in finds that must have been the buried hoards of Thracian princes and chiefs. This silver beaker is a fine example of fourth century B.C. Thracian workmanship. It probably was made in the region of present-day Romania or Bulgaria, as similar beakers have been found in a princely tomb at Agighiol, near the delta of the Danube in eastern Romania. The beaker is raised from a single piece of silver with a stamped, chased, and repoussé design." - The Metropolitan Museum of Art

This view of the beaker features a stag-like creature with eight legs, although it may indicate the presence of two stags side by side. Its antlers extend into a border of tines ending in bird heads that circle the upper portion of the cup. The opposite side of the beaker depicts a horned bird of prey holding a fish in its beak and clutching what seems to be a hare in its claws. The bird is flanked by one horned and two antlered animals, and, facing the large bird, a tiny bird of prey hovers over the horned animal. The museum also describes a winged, griffin-like monster chewing an animal leg and grasping a small beast in its clawed feet on the bottom of the vessel that is visible when the beaker is used but unfortunately the museum did not include images from these viewpoints.

"Although certain contemporary Scythian and Iranian stylistic influences can be seen, the iconography of these scenes is clearly Thracian and probably refers to a native myth or legend. The monstrous bird of prey with land and water creatures in its grasp appears to symbolize dominance over land and water. Though a precise interpretation of the iconography remains uncertain, scholars have suggested that these animals were symbols associated with a heroic ruler and served as protective spirits, avatars, and tribal totems." - The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Image: Silver Beaker with birds and animals, Thracian, 4th century BCE, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.


Britain's prehistoric catastrophe revealed: How 90% of the neolithic population vanished in just 300 years

Extraordinary new genetic evidence is revealing how Britain experienced a mysterious almost total change in its population in just a few centuries after the construction of Stonehenge.

It suggests that some sort of social, economic or epidemiological catastrophe unfolded.

The great 20-30 tonne stones of Stonehenge were erected by Neolithic farmers whose ancestors had lived in Britain for at least the previous 1,500 years – and new genetic research on 51 skeletons from all over Neolithic Britain has now revealed that during the whole of the Neolithic era, the country was inhabited mainly by olive-skinned, dark-haired Mediterranean-looking people.

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But some 300 to 500 years after the main phase of Stonehenge was built, that mainly Mediterranean-looking British Neolithic-originating element of the population had declined from almost 100 percent to just 10 per cent of the population.

The new genetic research reveals that the other 90 per cent were a newly-arrived central-European- originating population (known to archaeologists as the Beaker People) who appear to have settled in Britain between 2500 BC and 2000 BC via the Netherlands.

But how this dramatic population change occurred is an almost complete mystery.

There’s absolutely no evidence for any large-scale conflict – so warfare or genocide is almost certainly not the explanation.

It’s much more likely that the incoming population, with more advanced technology (including metal-working), gained control of the best land and resources and succeeded in economically marginalising the Neolithic population.

There is also a distinct possibility that the native Neolithic population of Britain had no resistance to some continental European diseases. There is some evidence from Europe that bubonic plague may have been the culprit.

If lack of immunity did wipe out much of Neolithic Britain’s population, then demographers will regard it as a very early precursor of what we know actually happened to the American Indians as a result of European colonisation of the New World.

The genetic research reveals that the same sort of extreme population change did not occur on the continent. It’s likely therefore that while Britain’s island status no doubt protected or isolated it in some ways, it ultimately made the population much more vulnerable to eventual catastrophic change.

Having discovered the dramatic population replacement between 2500 and 2200 or 2000 BC (essentially the interface between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age), scholars will now, no doubt, be looking at the previous really major cultural interface (in around 4300 BC between Britain’s indigenous Mesolithic hunter-gatherer population and the incoming continental-originating early Neolithic culture) to see whether similar extreme population changes were occurring.

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There’s always been a debate about how major cultural changes in Britain occurred in prehistory – through the movement of ideas and technologies or through the movement of people.

The new genetic discoveries show, for the first time, that at least in the Neolithic/Bronze Age transition it was people who arrived, not just ideas.

Today, in genetic terms, the Neolithic population of Europe substantially survives in only one place – Sardinia.

In Britain the genetic data was obtained from 51 Neolithic individuals (who died between 4000 and 2500 BC) and 104 Copper Age and Bronze Age people (who died between 2500 BC and 1000 BC).

Their skeletal material came from a range of prehistoric sites. Around 55 per cent of the Neolithic individuals’ remains came from large communal tombs, with a further 31 per cent coming from caves. Some 88 per cent of the Copper Age and Bronze Age individuals came from mainly individual graves and tombs, with just 9 per cent coming from caves.

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The genetic analysis of the prehistoric British skeletal material formed part of the largest study of ancient human DNA ever conducted. The study is published this week in the journal Nature.

The research was carried out by an international team of 144 archaeologists and geneticists from institutions in Europe and the United States including the Natural History Museum, the University of Cambridge and Harvard Medical School.

The study was made possible by an unprecedented collaboration between most of the major ancient DNA laboratories in the world. “Different teams had different key samples and we decided to put together our resources to make possible a study that was more definitive than any of us could have achieved alone,” said co-senior author of the Nature paper Kristian Kristiansen, an archaeologist at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

Mark Thomas, Professor of evolutionary genetics at UCL and co-author on the study said: “The sheer scale of population replacement in Britain is going to surprise many, even though the more we learn from ancient DNA studies, the more we see large-scale migration as the norm in prehistory.”

Ian Armit, senior co-author and Professor of Archaeology at the University of Bradford, said: “The analysis shows pretty conclusively that migration of the Beaker people into Britain was more intense and on a larger scale than anyone had previously thought. Britain essentially has a whole new population after that period.”


Large DNA Study Confirms Mysterious Origins of British People

New evidence shows that the original ancient Britons, the group of people responsible for feats such as Stonehenge, nearly completely disappeared between around 4,500 years ago. Up to 90 percent of these early inhabitants of England were replaced by a group of people from the East known as the Beaker people.

The Beaker people are named after the elaborate beakers, or drinking jugs, in which they were buried with, The Guardian reported. Archaeologists have been finding the graves of these ancient people for years. But it was not clear if the beakers artwork or if the individuals buried with these jugs belonged to a distinct ethnic group.

In a new study newly published in Nature, archaeologists looked at DNA from 400 skeletons found throughout Europe and 155 individuals who lived in Britain between 6,000 and 3,00 years ago. Results showed that the DNA of individuals from these Beaker graves was different from DNA found of earlier Britons, Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain starting in the Iron Age. The DNA disparity suggests that the earlier Britons, those responsible for Stonehenge and the white chalk drawings in Silbury, died out and were replaced by this group of Beaker people.

Related: Recreated Neolithic Homes At Stonehenge Show How Ancient Britons Lived

What happened to the original Britons is not clear. Ian Armit, an archaeologist from the University of Bradford, and a senior author of the study told The Guardian that the Beaker people may not have wiped out the original Britons by force and violence conquest. Rather, the Britons may have been dying out already by the time the Beakers arrived.

"There is some evidence of a declining population and increased growth of forests, suggesting that agriculture was in decline," said Armit. "We could be looking at climate change, or even an epidemic of imported disease to which they had no resistance. But we certainly now have the evidence that they were replaced&mdashand they never came back."

Related: Ancient England: Engraved Bones And Skull Cups Reveals Cannibal Rituals 15,00 Years Ago

It's also not clear where the Beaker people originated. Their DNA suggests a central European origin, IFL Science reported. The new research also suggests that the Beaker migration introduced new fair-pigment genes to Britain, as opposed to the darker coloring of the original Britons.

"Following the Beaker spread, there was a population in Britain that for the first time had ancestry and skin and eye pigmentation similar to the majority of Britons today," Ian Barnes, who studies paleobiology at the Natural History Museum in London, told The Guardian.

Analysis of the teeth of one of these skeletons, the famous Amesbury Archer, showed that he grew up in what is now modern-day Switzerland. But this analysis only showed where he was raised, not his genetic ancestry. Genetic analysis of other Beaker people buried in Britain show Steppe-origins, referring to an area encompassing Eastern Europe and Western Asia. For now, the exact origins of the Beakers, who would one day become modern British people, remains a mystery.


Roman Rusticated Cup / Beaker

Details
This elegant type of pottery drinking cup was popular in Roman Britain during the 3rd and 4th centuries. It was probably used as a wine cup, with the surface texture is created by applying wet slip to the surface of the cup with the palm of your hand.

Made primarily in the Nene Valley around the present day Peterborough, these pots were distributed widely throughout the province of Britannia and are found extensively on Hadrian's Wall. As with the original, this pot has been thrown on a potter's wheel.

This replica Roman pot has been hand made in Northumberland by Potted History, based on an original artefact. It has been wood fired in an authentic replica of a Roman Pottery Kiln at Vindolanda Museum, to a temperature of between 800 & 1000 Centigrade, using the same techniques that the original potters would have employed nearly two thousand years ago. This process often results in variations of the surface colour and texture, emulating original Roman Pottery and giving each pot it's unique character.

Terracotta clay , fired under reduction conditions

Approx. 140 mm tall, 100 mm diameter

This is a Museum Quality Replica made using the tools and techniques that would have been used during the Roman era. As this is an unglazed pot with a porous surface it will absorb some of the flavours during us, which does add to the flavour of future dishes. However, it does also mean that this pot does not meet modern Health and Safety standards and therefore we do not advise that it is used for food storage with. When the Romans cooked in ceramic pots they would rely on applying sufficient heat to the pot and contents to ensure that all bacteria was killed. Heating to over 70 °C for at least 10 minutes would have killed most disease causing bacteria and temperatures of 100°C would do even more.

Postage
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Watch the video: Μακρινά u0026 Μακρινά Ξαδέρφια (January 2022).